The Master and Margarita

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The Master and Margarita  
Recent English paperback edition
The cover of the 2001 Penguin paperback edition features the painting An Englishman in Moscow by Kazimir Malevich.
Author Mikhail Bulgakov
Original title Мастер и Маргарита
Country Russia
Language Russian
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher Posev
Publication date 1966–1967 (in series) & 1967 (in single volume)
Published in
Media type print (hardback & paperback)
ISBN ISBN 0141180145 (Penguin paperback)

The Master and Margarita (Russian: Мастер и Маргарита) is a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov, woven around the premise of a visit by the Devil to the fervently atheistic Soviet Union. Many critics[1] consider the book to be one of the greatest novels of the 20th century, as well as one of the foremost Soviet satires, directed against a suffocatingly bureaucratic social order.[citation needed]


[edit] History

Bulgakov started writing the novel in 1928. The first version of the novel was destroyed (according to Bulgakov, burned in a stove) in March 1930 when he was notified that his play The Cabal of Hypocrites (Кабала святош) was banned.[citation needed] The work was restarted in 1931 and in 1935 Bulgakov attended the Spring Festival at Spaso House, a party said to have inspired the ball of the novel.[2] The second draft was completed in 1936 by which point all the major plot lines of the final version were in place. The third draft was finished in 1937. Bulgakov continued to polish the work with the aid of his wife, but was forced to stop work on the fourth version four weeks before his death in 1940. The work was completed by his wife during 1940–1941.

A censored version (12% of the text removed and still more changed) of the book was first published in Moscow magazine (no. 11, 1966 and no. 1, 1967).[3] The text of all the omitted and changed parts, with indications of the places of modification, was published on a samizdat basis. In 1967 the publisher Posev (Frankfurt) printed a version produced with the aid of these inserts.

In Russia, the first complete version, prepared by Anna Saakyants, was published by Khudozhestvennaya Literatura in 1973, based on the version of the beginning of 1940 proofread by the publisher. This version remained the canonical edition until 1989, when the last version was prepared by literature expert Lidiya Yanovskaya based on all available manuscripts.

The Mikhail Bulgakov Museum in Moscow was vandalized on December 22, 2006, allegedly by a religious fanatic who denounced The Master and Margarita as being satanic propaganda.[4]

[edit] Plot summary

The novel alternates among three settings. The first is 1930s Moscow, which is visited by Satan in the guise of Woland or Voland (Воланд), a mysterious gentleman "magician" of uncertain origin, who arrives with a retinue that includes the grotesquely dressed "ex-choirmaster" valet Koroviev (Fagotto) (Фагот, the name means "bassoon" in Russian and some other languages), a mischievous, gun-happy, fast-talking black cat Behemoth (Бегемот, a subversive Puss in Boots, the name referring at once to the Biblical monster and the Russian word for Hippopotamus), the fanged hitman Azazello (Азазелло, hinting of Azazel), the pale-faced Abadonna (Абадонна, a reference to Abaddon) with a death-inflicting stare, and the witch Hella (Гелла). The havoc wreaked by this group targets the literary elite, along with its trade union, MASSOLIT (a Soviet-style abbreviation for "Moscow Society of Literature", but possibly interpretable as "Literature for the Masses"; one translation of the book also mentions that this could be a play on words in Russian, which could be translated into English as something like "LOTTALIT"), its privileged HQ-restaurant Griboyedov's House, corrupt social-climbers and their women (wives and mistresses alike) – bureaucrats and profiteers – and, more generally, skeptical unbelievers in the human spirit.

The opening sequence of the book presents a direct confrontation between the unbelieving head of the literary bureaucracy, Berlioz (Берлиоз), and an urbane foreign gentleman who defends belief and reveals his prophetic powers (Woland). This is witnessed by a young and enthusiastically modern poet, Ivan Bezdomniy (Иван Бездомный – the name means "Homeless"). His futile attempt to chase and capture the "gang" and warn of their evil and mysterious nature lands Ivan in a lunatic asylum. Here we are introduced to The Master, an embittered author, the petty-minded rejection of whose historical novel about Pontius Pilate and Christ has led him to such despair that he burns his manuscript and turns his back on the "real" world, including his devoted lover, Margarita (Маргарита). Major episodes in the first part of the novel include Satan's magic show at the Variety Theatre, satirizing the vanity, greed and gullibility of the new rich; and the capture and occupation of Berlioz's apartment by Woland and his gang.

Part 2 introduces Margarita, the Master's mistress, who refuses to despair of her lover or his work. She is made an offer by Satan (Woland), and accepts it, becoming a witch with supernatural powers on the night of his Midnight Ball, or Walpurgis Night, which coincides with the night of Good Friday, linking all three elements of the book together, since the Master's novel also deals with this same spring full moon when Christ's fate is sealed by Pontius Pilate and he is crucified in Jerusalem.

The second setting is the Jerusalem of Pontius Pilate, described by Woland talking to Berlioz and echoed in the pages of the Master's rejected novel, which concerns Pontius Pilate's meeting with Yeshua Ha-Nozri (Иешуа га-Ноцри, Jesus the Nazarene), his recognition of an affinity with and spiritual need for him, and his reluctant but resigned and passive handing over of him to those who wanted to kill him.

The third setting is the one to which Margarita provides a bridge. Learning to fly and control her unleashed passions (not without exacting violent retribution on the literary bureaucrats who condemned her beloved to despair), and taking her enthusiastic maid Natasha with her, she enters naked into the world of the night, flies over the deep forests and rivers of Mother Russia; bathes, and, cleansed, returns to Moscow as the anointed hostess for Satan's great Spring Ball. Standing by his side, she welcomes the dark celebrities of human history as they pour up from the opened maw of Hell.

She survives this ordeal without breaking, and for her pains and her integrity she is rewarded: Satan offers to grant Margarita her deepest wish. She chooses to liberate the Master and live in poverty and love with him. However, neither Woland nor Yeshua thinks this is a kind of life for good people, and the couple leaves Moscow with the Devil, as its cupolas and windows burn in the setting sun of Easter Saturday. The Master and Margarita leave and as a reward for not having lost their faith they are granted "peace" but are denied "light", i.e. salvation.

[edit] Bulgakov Museum in Moscow

Detail, Bulgakov Museum in Moscow

Bulgakov's old flat, in which parts of The Master and Margarita are set, has since the 1980s become a gathering spot for Bulgakov's fans, as well as Moscow-based Satanist groups, and had various kinds of graffiti scrawled on the walls. The numerous paintings, quips, and drawings were completely whitewashed in 2003. Previously the best drawings were kept as the walls were repainted, so that several layers of different colored paints could be seen around the best drawings. The building's residents, in an attempt to deter loitering, are currently attempting to turn the flat into a museum of Bulgakov's life and works. To date (February, 2005), they have had trouble contacting the flat's anonymous owner.[5]

On December 21, 2006, the museum in Bulgakov's flat was damaged by an anti-satanist protester and disgruntled neighbor, Alexander Morozov.[6]

The Bulgakov museum in Moscow remains open and contains personal belongings, photos, and several exhibitions related to Bulgakov's life and his different works. There is a fantastic museum and different poetic and literary events are often being held in the flat. The museum's web site is only available in Russian but the entrance is free and its opening hours are 1 p.m. - 7 p.m. The flat is located close to Mayakovskaya metro station on the Sadovaya street, 10.

[edit] Major characters in The Master and Margarita

[edit] Contemporary Russians

The Master
An author who has written a novel about the meeting of Pontius Pilate and Yeshua Ha-Nozri. Put away in a psikhushka, where Bezdomny meets him.
The Master's lover. Trapped in a passionless marriage; devoted herself to The Master, who she believes is dead. Does not appear until second half of the novel, where she serves as the hostess of Satan's Grand Ball on Walpurgis Night. She is named after Faust's Gretchen – whose real name is Margarita – as well as Marguerite de Valois. Marguerite was the main character in an opera, Les Huguenots by Giacomo Meyerbeer which Bulgakov particularly enjoyed, and a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père, La Reine Margot. In these accounts the queen is portrayed as daring and passionate. The character was also inspired by Bulgakov's last two wives, the first of whom loved action and was physically daring, while the last was devoted to his work in the same way as Margarita is to the Master.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Berlioz
Head of the literary bureaucracy MASSOLIT, sentenced by Woland to death for his atheistic sentiment. He bears the last name of the French composer, Hector Berlioz who wrote the opera the Damnation of Faust. Got hit by a streetcar.
Ivan Nikolayevich Ponyrov (Bezdomny)
A young, aspiring poet. His pen name Bezdomny means "homeless". Initially a willing tool of the MASSOLIT apparatus, he is transformed by the events of the novel. Witnesses Berlioz's death.
Stephan Bogdanovich Likhodeyev
Director of the Variety Theatre and Berlioz's roommate. Often called by diminutive name Styopa.
Grigory Danilovich Rimsky
Treasurer of the Variety Theatre. At one point, Rimsky is ambushed by Varenukha (who has been cursed with the dark form of a vampire by Woland). He barely escapes the encounter and he is forced to flee to the train station to get away. The night of Woland's performance is the same night that Rimsky and the ghost meet.
Ivan Savelyevich Varenukha
House-manager of the Variety Theatre. He is turned into a creature of darkness but is forgiven by the end of Walpurgistnacht - restoring his humanity.
Margarita's maid, later turned into a witch.
Nikanor Ivanovich Bosoy
Chairman of the House Committee at 302B Sadovaya Street-former residence of Berlioz.

[edit] Woland and his retinue

A "foreign professor" who is "in Moscow to present a performance of 'black magic' and then expose its machinations". The exposure (as one could guess) never occurs, instead Woland exposes the greed and bourgeois behaviour of the spectators themselves. Satan in disguise.
An enormous (said to be as large as a hog) black cat, capable of standing on two legs and talking. He has a penchant for chess, vodka and pistols. In Russian, "Begemot". The word itself means hippopotamus in Russian as well as the Biblical creature.
An purported "ex-choirmaster"; this may imply that Koroviev was once a member of an angelic choir. Woland's assistant.
A menacing, fanged and wall-eyed member of Woland's retinue.
Beautiful, redheaded witch. Serves as maid to Woland and his retinue. Remarked as being "perfect, were it not for a purple scar on her neck" – the scar suggesting that she is also a vampiress.
The pale-faced, black-goggled angel of death.

[edit] Characters from The Master's novel

Pontius Pilate
The Roman Procurator of Judaea.
Yeshua Ha-Nozri
Wanderer, "mad philosopher", as Pilate calls him, whose name means Jesus of Nazareth.
Head Of the Roman Secret Service in Judaea.
Matthew Levi
A Levite and former tax collector. Follower of Yeshua.
Joseph Kaifa
The High Priest of Judaea
Judas Iscariot
Testified against Yeshua thus causing him to be sentenced to death; later killed on Pilate's orders.

[edit] Themes and imagery

Ultimately, the novel deals with the interplay of good and evil, innocence and guilt, courage and cowardice, exploring such issues as the responsibility towards truth when authority would deny it, and the freedom of the spirit in an unfree world. Love and sensuality are also dominant themes in the novel. Margarita's devotional love for the Master leads her to leave her husband, but she emerges victorious. Her spiritual union with the Master is also a sexual one. The novel is a riot of sensual impressions, but the emptiness of sensual gratification without love is emphatically illustrated in the satirical passages. However, the stupidity of rejecting sensuality for the sake of empty respectability is also pilloried in the figure of the neighbour who becomes Natasha's hog-broomstick. The interplay of fire, water, destruction and other natural forces provides a constant accompaniment to the events of the novel, as do light and darkness, noise and silence, sun and moon, storms and tranquility, and other powerful polarities. There is a complex relationship between Jerusalem and Moscow throughout the novel, sometimes polyphony, sometimes counterpoint.

The novel is heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, and its themes of cowardice, trust, treachery, intellectual openness and curiosity, and redemption are prominent. Part of its literary brilliance lies in the different levels on which it can be read, as hilarious slapstick, deep philosophical allegory, and biting socio-political satire critical of not just the Soviet system but also the superficiality and vanity of modern life in general – jazz is a favourite target, ambivalent like so much else in the book in the fascination and revulsion with which it is presented. But the novel is also full of modern amenities like the model asylum, radio, street and shopping lights, cars, lorries, trams, and air travel. There is little evident nostalgia for any "good old days" – in fact, the only figure in the book to even mention Tsarist Russia is Satan himself. In another of its facets, perhaps showing a different aspect of Goethe's influence, the book is a Bildungsroman with Ivan as its focus. Furthermore, there are strong elements of Magical Realism in the novel.

A memorable and much-quoted line in The Master and Margarita is: "manuscripts don't burn" (Russian: рукописи не горят). The Master is a writer who is plagued by both his own mental problems and the oppression of Stalin's regime in the Moscow of the 1930s. He burns his treasured manuscript in an effort to hide it from the Soviet authorities and cleanse his own mind from the troubles the work has brought him. Woland later gives the manuscript back to him saying, "Didn't you know that manuscripts don't burn?" There is an autobiographical element reflected in the Master's character here, as Bulgakov in fact burned an early copy of The Master and Margarita for much the same reasons.

[edit] Major themes

The ironies of the relationship between social power and Art are essential to the dramatic tension in the book. Shelley remarks in "A Defence of Poetry" that "poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world", and as a poet/writer, the Master is so unacknowledged that he feels more at home in a lunatic asylum than in society, where he is subject to the whims of the actual legislators of the world, such as the bureaucrats of Massolit and their political masters. But the whole novel is directed at demonstrating to what it depicts as the corrupt philistines in power that they are less in control than they might wish. Above all they have no control over death or the spirit. They might mobilize the forces of darkness themselves, but fall short in a face-to-face contest with the Prince of Darkness – and contests of this kind provide the content of most of the Moscow chapters of the first part of the novel. It is notable that Bulgakov attacks no actual political leaders. His targets are all minions of one kind or another, albeit comfortably placed minions, like Berlioz, the head of Massolit, the literary bureaucracy. Despite the grand gestures of universality – darkness and light, the world and the stars, historical and geographical range – the novel is to a great extent a psycho-drama playing itself out in the literary world. The protagonists are the Academy and Bohemia. Even Pilate and Christ clash on these terms of authority vs authenticity. Bulgakov induces a "willing suspension of disbelief" almost as effective as the tricks pulled off in the Variety by Woland, Fagotto the valet and Behemoth the cat. Georg Lukacs's remarks on naturalism and modernism in the references given below are relevant to this novel, too – focus on either the close-up surface texture of society, or the distant mystery of the stars at night. Treating the doings of a narrow circle as affairs of universal significance, and so on. The portrayal of women shares this "cosmic" contrast in perspectives, too (exploited to great dramatic effect). Natasha seeks her freedom in witchdom, and Margarita flees respectability (submission to authority) to devote herself to the service of her lover (authenticity). She saves him, as Gretchen saves Faust in Goethe's plays, but likewise only because of the heroic challenge he has mounted to the "peace of the graveyard". "Das ewig Weibliche zieht uns hinan", Goethe wrote at the end of Faust – "the eternal feminine draws us onward" – and the feeling is the same in The Master and Margarita. Most of the other female characters in the book are wives or mistresses of males in positions with some social clout.

[edit] Allusions and references to other works

The novel is influenced by the Faust legend, particularly the first part of the Goethe interpretation and the opera by Charles Gounod. Also the work of Nikolai Gogol is a heavy influence, as is the case with many of Bulgakov's novels. The dialogue between Pontius Pilate and Yeshua Ha-Nozri is strongly influenced by Fyodor Dostoyevsky's parable "The Grand Inquisitor" from The Brothers Karamazov. [7] The novel references Tolstoy's Anna Karenina in the luckless visitors chapter "everything became jumbled in the Oblonsky household". The theme of the Devil exposing society as an apartment block, as it could be seen if the entire facade would be removed, has some precedents in The Crippled Devil (1641) by the Spaniard Luís Vélez de Guevara (famously adapted to 18th century France by Lesage's Le Diable boiteux).

[edit] Textual note

The final chapters are late drafts that Bulgakov pasted to the back of his manuscript; he died before he could incorporate these chapters into a completed fourth draft.

[edit] English translations

There are quite a few published English translations of The Master and Margarita, including but not limited to the following:

  • Mirra Ginsburg, New York: Grove Press, 1967.
  • Michael Glenny, New York: Harper & Row, 1967; London: Harvill, 1967; with introduction by Simon Franklin, New York: Knopf, 1992; London: Everyman's Library, 1992.
  • Diana Burgin and Katherine Tiernan O'Connor, annotations and afterword by Ellendea Proffer, Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1993, 1995.
  • Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, London: Penguin, 1997.
  • Michael Karpelson, Lulu Press, 2006.
  • Hugh Aplin, One World Classics, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84749-014-8

Ginsburg's translation was from a censored Soviet text and is therefore incomplete.

The early translation by Glenny runs more smoothly than that of the modern translations; some Russian-speaking readers consider it to be the only one creating the desired effect, though it may be somewhat at liberty with the text.[8] The modern translators pay for their attempted closeness by losing idiomatic flow.

However, according to Kevin Moss, who has at least two published papers on the book in literary journals, the early translations by Ginsburg and Glenny are quite hurried and lack much critical depth.[9] As an example, he claims that the more idiomatic translations miss Bulgakov's "crucial" reference to the devil in Berlioz's thought:

  • "I ought to drop everything and run down to Kislovodsk." (Glenny)
  • "It's time to throw everything to the Devil and go to Kislovodsk." (Burgin, Tiernan O'Connor)
  • "It's time to send it all to the devil and go to Kislovodsk." (Pevear, Volokhonsky)
  • "To hell with everything, it's time to take that Kislovodsk vacation." (Karpelson)

Several literary critics have hailed the Burgin/Tiernan O’Connor translation as the most accurate and complete English translation, particularly when read in tandem with the matching annotations by Bulgakov’s biographer, Ellendea Proffer.[10] Note that these judgements predate the translation by Pevear and Volokhonsky.

Limited information is available, at the time of this writing, regarding the 2006 Karpelson translation.

The new graphic novel published by British publishing house Self Made Hero, adapted by Andrzej Klimowski and Danusia Schejbal, provides a fresh visual translation/interpretation of the original.

[edit] Allusions and references from other works

Various authors and musicians have credited The Master and Margarita as inspiration for certain works.

  • Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses, was influenced by Bulgakov's masterwork.
  • It is claimed that Mick Jagger was inspired by the novel in writing the song "Sympathy for the Devil".[2], [3]
  • The grunge band Pearl Jam were influenced by the novel's confrontation between Yeshua Ha-Nozri and Pontius Pilate for the song, "Pilate" on their 1998 album "Yield".
  • The Lawrence Arms based their album The Greatest Story Ever Told on the book and several of its themes.
  • The Franz Ferdinand song "Love and Destroy" was based on a scene where Margarita flies over Moscow on her way to the Walpurgis Night Ball.
  • The Canadian group The Tea Party also were inspired by this book when they wrote their song "The Master and Margarita."
  • Arlie Carstens sings the line "Bulgakov to Woland's crowd," on the Juno song "The French Letter" from their album A Future lived in Past Tense.
  • Elefant, a New York City-based group, released The Black Magic Show in April 2006. The title and first track reference Satan's magic show.
  • Brakes's song "Margarita" from the album The Beatific Visions was inspired by the novel.
  • The German composer York Höller's opera Der Meister und Margarita was premiered in 1989 at the Paris Opéra and released on CD in 2000.
  • Jolie Holland has said that the song "Amen" from her album Escondida was inspired by the book (Margarita's flight), and that she would devote an album to it in the future.
  • The 1975 cult classic Rocky Horror Picture Show is sometimes noted for its similarities to the book. There is a complete overlap of personality between the redheaded witch/maid Gella and the East European accented Magenta, the maid of Dr. Frank N Furter – who, like Woland, aims to cause chaos and break taboos (sexual taboos, in the movie). Frank N. Furter's servant Riff Raff echoes Behemoth and Azazello, while the character Janet echoes Margarita – she gets her "tensions relieved" by adultery, just like this "saves" Margarita from a cold marriage. It may also be argued that the anarchic, absurd "mood" of the movie is the same as the mood of "Master and Margarita". While it is quite possible there has been an inspiration, this has never been confirmed by the movie's creators.
  • Surrealist artist H. R. Giger named a 1976 painting of his after the novel. The painting was later featured on the cover of Danzig's 1992 album Danzig III: How the Gods Kill.
  • In the videogame Grand Theft Auto 4, a mission is entitled "The Master and The Molotov", in which you kill a Russian man named Mikhail.

[edit] Film, TV and theatrical adaptations

  • 1972: Joint Italian-Yugoslavian production of Aleksandar Petrović's "The Master and Margaret" (Italian: "Il Maestro e Margherita", Serbo-Croatian: "Majstor i Margarita") is released. Based loosely on the book, the main discrepancy is that Master in the movie has an actual name of Nikolaj Afanasijevic Maksudov, while in the original book Master is persistently anonymous.[12]
  • 1989: Another Polish director Maciej Wojtyszko makes "Mistrz i Małgorzata", mini-TV series of four episodes.[13] They have been aired on Russian TV at least once.[citation needed]
  • 1992: In an adaptation called "Incident in Judea" by Paul Bryers, only the Yeshua story is told. The film includes a prologue which mentions Bulgakov and the other story-lines. The cast includes John Woodvine, Mark Rylance, Lee Montague and Jim Carter. The film was distributed by Brook Productions and Channel 4.
  • 1994: A Russian movie of the same name is made by Yuri Kara. Although the cast included big names and talented actors (Anastasiya Vertinskaya as Margarita, Mikhail Ulyanov as Pilate, Nikolai Burlyayev as Yeshua, Valentin Gaft as Woland, Aleksandr Filippenko as Korovyev-Fagot) and its score was by the noted Russian composer Alfred Schnittke, the movie was never actually released on any media. The grandson of Bulgakov's third wife Elena Sergeevna Shilovskaya claims, as a self-assigned heir, the rights on Bulgakov's literary inheritance and refuses the release. Since the beginning of 2006, however, copies of the movie exist on DVD. Some excerpts of it can be viewed on the Master and Margarita website[14]
  • 2004: The National Youth Theatre produces a stage adaptation at the Lyric Hammersmith London, directed by John Hoggarth. The adaptation is by David Rudkin. It features a cast of 35, most notably Matt Smith as Basoon, Tom Allen as Woland, Luke Rabbito as Matthew Levi, Shane Zaza as Yeshua Ha Nozri, John Hollingworth as The Master, Shakira Brooking as Margarita. It ran for a month, in August and September.
  • On August 25, 2006, Andrew Lloyd Webber announced that he aimed to turn the novel into "a stage musical or, more probably, an opera".[15] However, in 2007 The Stage, an online theater website, confirmed that he has abandoned his attempt to compose a musical version of The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov. “I’ve decided that it’s undoable. It’s just too difficult for an audience to contemplate. It’s a very complicated novel.”
  • In October 2006 it was staged by Grinnell College, directed by Veniamin Smekhov.
  • In 2006 almost 5 hour long adaptation was staged by Georgian director Avtandil Varsimashvili.
  • In 2007, Helsinki, Finland. Production is put on stage under the name "Saatana saapuu Moskovaan" (Satan comes to Moscow) by the group theatre Ryhmäteatteri [5], directed by Finnish director Esa Leskinen. Eleven talented actors played in 26 separate roles in the amazing and successful theathrical performance of three hours during the season 25.9.2007 - 1.3.2008.

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB
  2. ^ [1] U.S. Embassy Moscow website
  3. ^ "Master: Russian Editions". Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  4. ^ Yahoo! News (2006-12-25). "Russian writer's museum sacked by critic of 'Satanic' work". Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  5. ^ Stephen, Chris. "Devil-worshippers target famous writer's Moscow flat". The Irish Times, Saturday, February 5, 2005. Page 9.
  6. ^
  7. ^ Susan Amert (2002) (PDF). The Dialectics of Closure in Bulgakov's Master and Margarita. Retrieved on 2009-03-23. 
  8. ^ Sarvas, Mark. "The Elegant Variation: A Literary Weblog". Retrieved on 2006-10-25. 
  9. ^ Moss, Kevin. "Published English Translations". Retrieved on 2006-10-25. 
  10. ^ Weeks, Laura D. (1996). Master and Margarita: A Critical Companion. Northwestern University Press. pp. 244. ISBN 0-8101-1212-4. 
  11. ^ IMDb. "Pilatus und andere – Ein Film für Karfreitag". Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  12. ^ The Master and Margarita at the Internet Movie Database
  13. ^ The Master and Margarita at the Internet Movie Database
  14. ^ "IMDB entry for the 1994 version". Retrieved on 2006-08-10. 
  15. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber (2006-08-25). "Revealed: My next project!". Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 

[edit] References

  • G. Lukacs, Studies in European Realism, (Merlin, 1973)
  • G. Lukacs, The Meaning of Contemporary Realism, (Merlin, 1974)

[edit] Further reading

  • Reidel-Schrewe, Ursula, "Key and Tripod in Mikhail Bulgakov's Master and Margarita", Neophilologus journal, v.79, n.2, April 1995, p.273-282.

[edit] External links

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