The Fountainhead

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The Fountainhead  

Early edition cover
Author Ayn Rand
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Philosophical novel
Publisher Bobbs Merrill
Publication date 15 April 1943
Media type print (hardback & paperback)
Pages 752

The Fountainhead is a 1943 novel by Ayn Rand. It was Rand's first major literary success and its royalties and movie rights brought her fame and financial security. The book's title is a reference to Rand's statement that "man's ego is the fountainhead of human progress".

The Fountainhead's protagonist, Howard Roark, is an idealistic young architect who chooses to struggle in obscurity rather than compromise his artistic and personal vision. The book follows his battle to practice modern architecture, which he believes to be superior, despite an establishment centered on tradition-worship. How others in the novel relate to Roark demonstrate Rand's various archetypes of human character, all of which are variants between Roark, her ideal man of independent-mindedness and integrity, and what she described as the "second-handers." The complex relationships between Roark and the various kinds of individuals who assist or hinder his progress, or both, allows the novel to be at once a romantic drama and a philosophical work.

The manuscript was rejected by twelve publishers before a young editor, Archibald Ogden, at the Bobbs-Merrill Company publishing house wired to the head office, "If this is not the book for you, then I am not the editor for you." Despite generally negative early reviews from the contemporary media, the book gained a following by word of mouth and sold hundreds of thousands of copies. The Fountainhead was made into a Hollywood film in 1949, with Gary Cooper in the lead role of Howard Roark, and with a screenplay by Ayn Rand herself.


[edit] Plot

Howard Roark, a brilliant young architect, is expelled from the Stanton Institute of Technology[1] for refusing to abide by its outdated traditions. He goes to New York City to work for Henry Cameron, a disgraced architect whom Roark admires - being formally Cameron's employee but in fact his disciple and in effect his adopted son. Roark’s highly successful but vacuous schoolmate, Peter Keating, also moves to New York to work for the prestigious architectural firm, Francon & Heyer. Roark and Cameron create inspired work, but their projects rarely receive recognition, whereas Keating’s ability to flatter and please brings him almost instant success despite his lack of originality.

Roark closes his office rather than compromise his drawings, and his ideals, to the whims of his clients. He takes a job at a Connecticut granite quarry owned by Guy Francon, whose beautiful, temperamental, and idealistic daughter, Dominique, beguiles Peter Keating.

While Roark is working in the quarry, he encounters Dominique, who has taken an extended holiday in the same town as the quarry. There is an immediate attraction between them, which results in peculiar flirtation and ultimate culmination in what Dominique subsequently describes as rape.

Ellsworth Toohey, a columnist for The New York Banner (a yellow press-style newspaper owned by Gail Wynand) and author of the popular column One Small Voice, is an outspoken socialist, who is covertly rising to power by shaping public opinion through his column and his circle of influential associates, and whose quite openly proclaimed designs are not understood or taken seriously. Toohey sets out to destroy Roark through a smear campaign he spearheads at the Banner. As the first step, Toohey convinces a weak-minded businessman named Hopton Stoddard to hire Roark as the designer for a temple dedicated to the human spirit and gives Roark carte blanche to design it as he sees fit. Roark designs the temple, with a naked statue of Dominique, which creates the first public outcry against Howard and Stoddard is (with Toohey's encouragement) appalled at what Roark has built. Toohey further manipulates Stoddard into suing Roark for general incompetence and fraud. At Roark’s trial, every prominent architect in New York (including Keating) testifies that Roark’s style is unorthodox and illegitimate. Dominique defends Roark, but Stoddard wins the case and Roark loses his business again.

Dominique believes that greatness such as Roark's should never be offered to a public unable to appreciate it, and decides that since she cannot have the world she wants (in which men like him are recognized for what they are) she will live completely and entirely in the world she has, which shuns him and praises Keating. That evening, Dominique pays Keating a visit, and makes him a one-time offer of her hand in marriage. Keating accepts, and they are married that evening. Dominique turns her entire spirit over to Peter, hosting the dinners he wants, agreeing with him, and saying whatever he wants her to say. She fights Roark, and herds all of his potential clients over to the slowly weakening Keating. Despite this, Roark continues to attract a small but steady stream of perceptive, intelligent clients who see the value in his work.

To win Keating a prestigious architecture commission offered by Gail Wynand, the owner and editor-in-chief of the Banner, Dominique agrees to sleep with Wynand. Wynand then buys Keating's silence and a divorce for Dominique and Keating, after which Wynand and Dominique are married.

Wynand subsequently discovers that every building he likes is done by Roark, so he enlists Howard to build a home for himself and Dominique. The home is built, and Howard and Gail become great friends, though Wynand does not know about his past relationship with Dominique.

Now washed up and out of the public eye, Keating realizes he is a failure. Rather than accept retirement, he pleads with Toohey for his influence in favour of Keating to get the commission for the much sought after Cortlandt housing project. Keating knows that his most successful projects were aided by Roark, and he knows Roark is the only person who can design Cortlandt. Roark agrees to design it in exchange for complete anonymity -- and the agreement that it would be built exactly as he designed.

When Roark returns from a long yacht trip with Wynand he finds that, despite the agreement, the Cortlandt Homes project has been changed. Roark asks Dominique to distract the night watchman and dynamites the building to prevent the subversion of his vision. The entire country condemns Roark, but Wynand finally finds the courage to follow his convictions and orders his newspapers to defend him. The Banner’s circulation drops and the workers go on strike (thanks to Toohey's quiet conspiracy to "stack" the paper with those who agree with him, or those whom he can control), but Wynand keeps printing with Dominique’s help. Eventually the tide of public opinion rises against Wynand and most of his staff leaves in protest. Wynand is eventually faced with the choice of closing the paper or reversing his stance and agreeing to the union demands; he gives in, the newspaper publishes a denunciation of Roark over Wynand's signature.

At the trial, Roark seems doomed, but he rouses the courtroom with a speech about the value of ego and the need to remain true to oneself. The jury finds him not guilty. Roark marries Dominique. Wynand, who has finally grasped the nature of the "power" he thought he held, asks Roark to design one last building, a skyscraper that will testify to the supremacy of man: "Build it as a monument to that spirit which is yours...and could have been mine."

A brief epilogue eighteen months later shows the Wynand Building well on its way to completion. The last scene follows Dominique (now Mrs. Roark), entering the site to meet Roark atop the steel framework.

[edit] Characters

The novel is split into four sections; Keating, Toohey, Wynand, and Roark. Peter Keating is "the man who couldn't be, and doesn't know it", who wants to achieve success as well as make a name for himself. But, he lives off the support and condolence of others, which is what leads to his demise. Ellsworth Toohey, presented as the complete antithesis of Roark, is "the man who couldn't be, and knows it", who sets out to destroy others through guilt and altruism, because he knows that this is the only way he can accomplish anything. Gail Wynand is the "man who could have been", who rises from the poverty of his youth to a position of power and riches. But Wynand uses his superlative talent not to create for himself, but to control others, which leads to his own demise. The major characters exist as foils to Howard Roark who is Rand's image of the perfect man and, to a lesser extent, to contrast Toohey, who is portrayed as absolute evil. Roark is the man who was "as man should be", who lives for himself and his own creativity, indifferent to the opinions of others. (Dominique Francon is presented as the perfect mistress for Roark. Over the course of the novel she must learn not to fear society and not to let its flaws undermine her integrity.)

The first and fourth sections are quite obviously structured as two parallel and contrasting biographies - of Roark (4th section) and of Keating (1st section): Roark is expelled from the Stanton Institute while Keating graduates as the star student; Keating goes to work in the big and prestigious office of Guy Francon, and spends his time mainly on vicious office politics in order to sweep rival after rival out of his way; Roark goes to work in the rundown office of Henry Cameron in order to learn how to build - a disciple rather than employee; Keating celebrates the achievement of a partnership in Francon's office, with all the prominent architects of America gathered to welcome him - while Roark goes off to work as a manual worker in a granite quarry, rather than pervert his ideas; Roark feels wild exultation at seeing the Enright Building erected, fully expressing his ideas and vision - while Keating feels nothing in the inauguration of the Cosmo-Slotnik Building, "a big bromide" whose only good parts were secretly designed by Roark.

From the third section on, Keating's career (and his life in general) takes a sharp downward turn, and it is Wynand - who was kept offstage in the previous books - who becomes the foil for Roark, in a more subtle and complicated way.

[edit] Peter Keating

Peter Keating is also an aspiring architect, but is everything that Roark is not. His original tendency was to become a painter, but his opportunistic mother pushed him toward architecture where he might have greater material success. Keating's creative abilities are mediocre, but his willingness to build what others wish leads him to temporary success. He attends architecture school with Roark, who helps him with some of his less inspired projects. He is subservient to the wills of others: Dominique Francon's father, the architectural establishment, his mother, even Roark himself. Keating is "a man who never could be, but doesn't know it". The one sincere thing in Keating's life is his love for Catherine. She is Ellsworth Toohey's niece, but Keating initially refuses her suggestion to introduce him to her uncle. He does this despite the fact that an introduction to the influential architectural critic Toohey would help his career. In all other circumstances Keating is absolutely relentless and ruthless in furthering his career, even to the extent of bullying a sick old man and causing his death. Keating's offer to elope with Catherine is his one chance to act on what he believes is his own desire. But, Dominique arrives at that precise moment and offers to marry him for her own reasons, and his acceptance of the offer and betrayal of Catherine ends the potential of romance between them. Both Keating and Catherine end up embodying the soulless result of devoting oneself to altruism.

[edit] Ellsworth Toohey

Ellsworth Monkton Toohey, who writes a popular architectural column, is Roark's antagonist. Toohey is an unabashed collectivist and Rand's personification of evil (when speaking freely, he explicitly compares himself to Goethe's Mephisto, who tempted Faust to destruction). He falsely styles himself as representative of the will of the masses.

Aiming at a society that shall be "an average drawn upon zeroes," he knows exactly why he corrupts Peter Keating, his boss, [sic] and explains his methods to the ruined young man in a passage that is a pyrotechnical display of the fascist mind at its best and its worst; the use of the ideal of altruism to destroy personal integrity, the use of humor and tolerance to destroy all standards, the use of sacrifice to enslave.[2]

Having no true genius, Toohey's mission is to destroy excellence and promote altruism as the ultimate social ideal. This is put forward in one of his most memorable quotes: "Don’t set out to raze all shrines—you’ll frighten men. Enshrine mediocrity, and the shrines are razed."

Rand used her memory of the British democratic socialist Harold Laski to help her imagine what he would do in a given situation.[3] Lewis Mumford was also an initial inspiration.[3]

In the biography of Toohey, it is mentioned that in his younger age he aspired to become a clergyman, but abandoned religion after discovering Socialism and considering that it better served his purposes. (There is no explicit mention of what denomination the young Toohey belonged to, but a later reference by his niece Catherine to the time when she used to "go to confession in church" seems to indicate a Roman Catholic background). In that, Toohey's early career parallels that of Stalin, who had also trained for the priesthood in his young age - though Toohey's methods are much more subtle than those of the Soviet dictator, and he builds up a formidable power structure without resorting to an outright seizure of power or establishing a secret police apparatus.

Indeed, even when frankly describing the nightmare world which is his ultimate aim ("A world where the thought of each man will not be his own, but an attempt to guess the thought of his neighbor (...) Men will not work for money, but for prestige, the approval of their fellows - not judgment, but public polls") Toohey makes no mention of any overt dictatorship or coercive apparatus. Rather, Toohey's methods throughout the book suggest that such a regime might be able to retain the forms of democracy, multi-party elections and a free press, with actual power held by Toohey-like "informal advisers".

As described in his biography, Toohey had already in early childhood developed a talent for subtly manipulating his parents and elementary school class-mates in order to gain power over them. The adult Toohey - who "never sees men, only forces" (Book II, Ch. 6) - is a master schemer and manipulator, who like a chess master can devise a gambit and predict many moves in advance. For example, Toohey sets Hopton Stoddard to hire Roark for the construction of his temple - and without having ever spoken to Roark, just by having seen Roark's buildings, Toohey is able to give his proxy Stoddard the arguments which would induce Roark to undertake the job: "It doesn't matter if you don't believe in God, Mr. Roark; you are a profoundly religious man, in your own way. I can see it in your buildings". Having seen Roark's buildings, Toohey has a good idea what kind of temple Roark would construct - and even before Roark ever heard of Stoddard and his temple, Toohey already planned how he would attack the temple once built, get it destroyed and Roark discredited, and transform it an "institute for subnormal children".

Roark's and Toohey's being the precise antithesis of each other is emphasized by a similarity in the way that Roark's buildings are first introduced in the book ("They were the first houses built by the first man born, who had never heard of others building before him") and the way that Toohey's public speaking is introduced ("The voice spoke English words, but the resonant clarity of each syllable made it sound like a new language spoken for the first time"). Toohey in fact very much wants Roark's recognition, claiming in effect that his perception of the significance of Roark's work and then destroying it makes him the equal of its creator — a claim which Roark rebuffs in their only face-to-face encounter in the entire book (excluding Roark's trials): "Why don't you tell me what you think of me, Mr. Roark?" Roark replies, "But I don't think of you."

"But I don't think of you" Roark's statement "But I don't think of you" to Toohey is one of the most well-known lines in the book (as in the film made on its basis) [4]. As noted by Rand herself in the introduction to the 1968 edition, it was inspired by words actually said by her husband Frank O'Connor "to a different type of person, in a somewhat similar kind of context".

In fact, the line is repeated three times at different points. In Book II, Ch. 8, Dominique asks "Roark, what do you think of Ellsworth Toohey?", and he answers - as he later would to Toohey himself: "Good God, why should anyone think of Ellsworth Toohey?".

However, when still later Roark sails in Wynand's yacht and takes time out from his architecture to think about general principles (Book IV, Ch. 11), Wynand asks Roark to "think of Ellsworth Toohey" - which, on this occasion, Roark duly does. Subsequently, the two discuss at considerable length Toohey and what Toohey stands for[5]. .

Indeed, it is obviously far from prudent not to think at all about a cunning and dangerous enemy bent on one's destruction. In "Atlas Shrugged", John Galt would produce a modified formulation: "Never think of enemies for a moment more than is needed in order to fight them" ("Atlas Shrugged", Part 3, Ch. VIII).

[edit] Gail Wynand

Gail Wynand is a powerful newspaper mogul who rose from a destitute childhood in the ghettoes of New York City to control the city's print media. While Wynand shares many of the character qualities of Roark, his success is dependent upon his ability to manipulate public opinion, a flaw which eventually leads to his downfall. Rand describes Wynand as "a man who could have been." It has been speculated that Wynand is partially based on real-life newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst since Hearst himself started by taking over his father's newspaper and spread from there. Hearst was also known as the father of the yellow journalism, which Wynand is known for in the The Fountainhead. Furthermore, much like Wynand, Hearst had his own dream house constructed in California, the landmark Hearst Castle. Eventually, both real and fictional moguls sold out their empires, taking the businesses public in order to keep the newspapers from going under. Despite the obvious parallels, however, Rand states in her introduction that none of her characters were based upon real people.

[edit] Howard Roark

Howard Roark, Rand's main protagonist, is "tall and gaunt"- "His hair was neither blond nor red, but the exact color of ripe orange rind." An aspiring architect with a unique and uncompromising creative vision, he contrasts sharply with the staid and uninspired conventions of the architectural establishment. He ignores the driving preoccupations of the world around him: wealth, status, social standing among the elite. Roark takes pleasure in the act of creation. But, he is constantly opposed by "the hostility of second-hand souls", the second-handers; those unwilling or afraid to recognize his creative ability. Also, he's basically the most awesome person in the novel.

[edit] Dominique Francon

Dominique Francon is the heroine of The Fountainhead, described by Rand as "the woman for a man like Howard Roark." Dominique is the daughter of Guy Francon, a highly successful but creatively inhibited architect. Peter Keating is employed by her father, and her intelligence, insight and observations are above his. It is only through Roark that her love of pleasure and autonomy meets a worthy equal. These strengths are also what she initially lets stifle her growth and make her life miserable. She begins thinking that the world did not deserve her sincerity and intellect, because the people around her did not measure up to her standards. She starts out punishing the world and herself for all the things about man which she despises, through self-defeating behavior. She initially believes that greatness, such as Roark's, is doomed to fail and will be destroyed by the 'collectivist' masses around them. She eventually joins Roark romantically, but before she can do this, she must learn to join him in his perspective and purpose.

However, Dominique Francon eventually learns not to let a flawed society and misled zeitgeist inhibit her creative and emotional expression and drive, nor poison her hope in her own ideals. By the end of the novel, Dominique no longer cares what anyone thinks or does. She lives her life for herself and no one else. She learns to love and create freely and passionately, and no longer cares whether the world is worthy of her expression. She has a new world now that is hers alone. Finally, it is the act of creating, loving, and living in which she finds happiness, rather than the results of these successes, no matter how good or bad the recognition may be. It no longer matters what might happen or what others think, because the happiness she finds cannot be taken away from her. She learns to be the change she wishes to see in her world. Her new world, that in which she sets the standards by which all will live in regards to any association with Dominique, is worthy of her beautiful mind and heart because it belongs to her and no one else, and is shared on her terms alone. That is, Dominique's terms as well as those with the same individualistic, objectivist and uncompromising ideals.

[edit] Main themes

[edit] Architectural theme

Rand dedicated The Fountainhead to her husband, Frank O'Connor, and to architecture. She chose architecture for the analogy it offered to her ideas, especially in the context of the ascent of Modern architecture. It provided a convenient vehicle to portray her views — that the individual is supreme, and that selfishness is a virtue.

Throughout The Fountainhead, Rand's definitions of "selfishness" and "selflessness" differ from common usage. Rather than using "selfish" as a pejorative, she uses the term to mean remaining true to one's ideals against the influence of others. "Selflessness" contradicts Roark's concept of self.

Peter Keating and Howard Roark are character foils. Keating practices in the historical eclectic and neo-classic mold, even when the building's typology is a skyscraper. He follows and pays respect to old traditions. He accommodates the changes suggested by others, mirroring the eclectic directions, and willingness to adapt, current at the turn of the twentieth century. Roark searches for truth and honesty and expresses them in his work. He is uncompromising when changes are suggested, mirroring Modern architecture's trajectory from dissatisfaction with earlier design trends to emphasizing individual creativity. Roark's individuality eulogizes modern architects as uncompromising and heroic masters. A common, unfounded, speculation is that Roark was inspired by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright; a claim both Rand and Wright denied. Rand did, however, once commission Wright to design a summer cottage for her; it was never built. The most that may be suggested is that some of the descriptions of Roark's buildings resemble those of Wright: a notable example being the "Heller House" - the first of Roark's designs to be built - cantilevered over the edge of a cliff in a descriptive image reminiscent of Wright's famous Fallingwater in Pennsylvania.

[edit] Objectivism

Ayn Rand's philosophy, Objectivism, is woven into the text through its main characters. Rand writes in Atlas Shrugged: "My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute." Roark embodies this philosophy in his quest for architectural integrity and maintaining his own design, despite the (clearly more lucrative) accepted mores of architecture.

For a more complete indication of the influence of the novel and its author, see the article, "Bibliography of work on Objectivism."

[edit] Literary significance and criticism

Lorine Pruette, a New York Times reviewer wrote that the book was "a hymn in praise of the individual... you will not be able to read this masterful book without thinking through some of the basic concepts of our times."[6]

Benjamin DeCasseres, a columnist for the New York Journal-American wrote of Roark as "an uncompromising individualist" and "one of the most inspiring characters in modern American literature."[6]

[edit] Library of Congress dispute

Leonard Peikoff inherited many of Rand's manuscripts. During her lifetime, Rand had apparently made a comment she would bequeath her manuscripts to the Library of Congress. She later had reservations. The Library of Congress requested the manuscripts, and demanded that Peikoff present them to the library. He considered his options, and after a heart attack in July 1991 he decided to turn over the manuscripts. He had his assistant box all of the manuscript pages except for two—the first and last pages of The Fountainhead—which he had framed. In their stead, he had the pages photocopied so that the manuscripts would be "complete." An appraiser went through the manuscripts and notified the Library of Congress about the replacement pages. The Library of Congress replied that copied pages were of no consequence.

Some years later, Peikoff held an interview in his home with a reporter from the Los Angeles Times, and when asked about the pages (which had been framed and hung on the wall of his office), Peikoff joked about having "stolen" them from the Library of Congress. This apparently went into the article, and not long after that the Library of Congress contacted Peikoff and demanded that he return U. S. government property. James H. Billington was the director of the Library of Congress at the time.

After consulting with his lawyer, Peikoff determined that there was not much he could do about his situation. While perhaps he had a right to keep the papers and even though they were legally his (his argument is that he had never donated them to the library, so they had never been property of the U. S. government), and even though he might win a lawsuit against the government, the process would be long and expensive. So he signed a capitulation agreement, but supplied the condition that the Library of Congress must come and retrieve the pages themselves. This retrieval was videotaped by a friend.[7]

[edit] In popular culture

[edit] Film adaptation

The 1949 film is based on the book and stars Gary Cooper as Howard Roark, Patricia Neal as Dominique Francon, Raymond Massey as Gail Wynand, and Kent Smith as Peter Keating. The film was directed by King Vidor, with a screenplay by Ayn Rand.

[edit] Cultural references

Due to the controversy surrounding the book and its influence, The Fountainhead has been referenced many times in popular culture. The book often appears to suggest Objectivist-related thought or change within a character, such as with the character Janet in the 1992 motion picture Singles or the character Sawyer in the television series Lost.

Other examples of popular culture make plot-references more generally, such as when in the TV series Gilmore Girls, Rory calls Lorelai "the Howard Roark of Stars Hollow" for being ruthless in a competition,[8] or Rory tells Jess about her love of the book and Jess expresses awe that she read it when she was only 10[9].

In the film Dirty Dancing, self-serving waiter Robby Gould suggests Baby read The Fountainhead.

In the film "Cruel Intentions" a conversation between Sebastian and Annette contains the reference to the sexual encounter between Roark and his mistress, commenting on its romantic ideals and its aggressive paradigm.

In the book and the film adaptation of the Philip K. Dick novel A Scanner Darkly, the character Charles Freck chooses to place a copy of the novel near his dead body when committing suicide, in order to make a symbolic statement.

Often, The Fountainhead appears simply as a reference to the title or a character name, such as the song "The Fountainhead" by The Bluetones, or in the television series Desperate Housewives, when 'Howard Roark' appears as the name of the architect of a golf pro-shop.

In one episode of Frasier, Frasier Crane recalls how at the age of 8 a bully snatched his copy of the book and threw it under a bus.

In the Simpsons episode 'A Streetcar Named Marge', Maggie is enrolled at the 'Ayn Rand School For Tots', and Ms. Sinclair the carer is seen reading a book called 'The Fountainhead Diet'.

Canadian actor Roark Critchlow (born 1963) was given this first name after Howard Roark - evidently a character admired by his parents.

In Batman: Cacophony by Kevin Smith, the Joker, known for his individuality, refers to the book sarcastically as a "knee slapper." Deadshot replies that it is one of his favorite books. In Fantastic 4: True Story, a miniseries in which the Fantastic 4 goes into a realm made up of fiction, there is a character called, "Fountainhead" (literally a head inside a fountain), who represents the personification of human creativity.

In the book The Perks of Being a Wallflower the main character's teacher and close friend gives him The Fountainhead to read.

The videogame Bioshock contains allusions to The Fountainhead. For example, a poster can be seen during gameplay for the business "Eve's Garden" contains the words "H. Roark presents" above its name. Further, the character "Andrew Ryan" is said to be a variation of "Ayn Rand".[citation needed]

Terry Goodkind's book Faith of the Fallen, book 6 in the Sword of Truth series, is a loose retelling of The Fountainhead in fantasy-genre form. The protagonist, Richard Rahl, plays the part of Howard Roark, except as a sculptor rather than an architect.[10]

In the 3 part comic book series Batman: Cacophony The Joker is seen reading The Fountainhead in the beginning of the first issue and the end of the third.

Susan Brownmiller, in her 1970s work on sexual assault Against Our Will, denounced the rape scene, and Dominique's subsequent relationship with Roark, for promoting the idea that "no means yes" and that non-consensual sex occurs because the woman subconsciously agrees to it.

[edit] References

  1. ^ The Stanton Institute of Technology is described as being "on the seashore of Massachusetts", with students going to parties in Boston, which evidently suggests that it is loosely based on the actual Massachusetts Institute of Technology and specifically the MIT School of Architecture and Planning - though the architecture of the fictional Institute's campus buildings, described in detail in the book's first chapter, is very different from that of the actual MIT.
  2. ^ NY Times Books of the Century, article "Master Builder", dtd 5/16/43, 1998 Random House ISBN 0-8129-2965-9 (pp. 134-135)- the characterisation of Keating as Toohey's "boss" is a mistake.
  3. ^ a b Mayhew, Robert (2007). Essays on Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-1578-2 (pp. 57).
  4. ^ George Silverman, "Architecture and Politics, fact and fiction" p. 118-127
  5. ^ George Silverman, "Architecture and Politics, fact and fiction" p. 137-138
  6. ^ a b Berliner, Michael S., Letters of Ayn Rand (New York: Plume, 1995), pp. 74.
  7. ^ Peikoff, Leonard. "Peikoff's Experience with the Library of Congress" (February 13, 2002)], retrieved 2008-06-10.
  8. ^ Allusions for the episode "They Shoot Gilmores, Don't They?" of Gilmore Girls, Retrieved 2008-06-10.
  9. ^ Allusions for the episode "A-Tisket, A-Tasket?" of Gilmore Girls, Retrieved 2008-06-26.
  10. ^ [1]

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

  • Mayhew, Robert (2006). Essays on Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7391-1578-2. 

[edit] External links

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