Ruhollah Khomeini

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Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini

In office
3 December, 1979 – 3 June, 1989
Succeeded by Ali Khamenei

Born 24 September 1902(1902-09-24)
Khomein, Markazi Province, Persian Empire
Died 3 June 1989 (aged 86)
Tehran, Iran
Spouse Khadijeh Saqafi Khomeini
Children Ahmad, Mostafa & others; grandchildren: Hassan, Hussein, Ali Khomeini & Ali, Zahra, Atefeh Eshraghi
Religion Usuli Twelver Shi'a Islam

Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian: Khomeini.ogg روح الله موسوی خمینی , pronounced [ruːh-ol-lɑːh-e muːsæviː-je xomejniː])(24 September 1902[1][2] – 3 June, 1989) was an Iranian religious leader and scholar, politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the late Shah of Iran. Following the revolution and a national referendum, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation, until his death.

Khomeini was a marja or marja al-taqlid, ("source of emulation"), (also known as a Grand Ayatollah) in Twelver Shi'a Islam, but is most famous for his political role. In his writings and preachings he expanded the Shi'a Usuli theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult (clerical authority)" to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists and to provide the theological basis for his rule of Iran.

Beloved by millions of Iranians,[3] Khomeini was a "charismatic leader of immense popularity,"[4] and both his return from exile and his funeral were occasions of great emotional outpouring for millions. Abroad he was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iranian hostage crisis [5] and his fatwa calling for the death of British citizen Salman Rushdie.[6] The "virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture,"[7] Khomeini was named Man of the Year in 1979 by TIME magazine,[8] and became known outside of his supporters as a "fanatic whose judgments are harsh, reasoning bizarre and conclusions surreal"[8] who "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam" during his reign.[7]

Khomeini is usually known as "Imam Khomeini" inside Iran[9] and amongst his followers internationally, and "Ayatollah Khomeini" outside of Iran.[10]


[edit] Early life

The young Khomeini

Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was born to Mustafa Musawi[11] and Hajiyah Aga Khanum in the town of Khomein,[12] about 300 kilometers (180 miles) south of Tehran, on[13] September 24, 1902.[1][2] Khomeini is called a sayyid as his family traces its descent from the seventh of the Twelve Imams, Musa al-Kazim.[12][14] Several of his close ancestors were dedicated to Islamic studies: his father and both of his grandfathers were all Shia clerics.[15] Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Sayid Ahmad Musawi Hindi, spent many years in India before returning to Persia to purchase a home in Khomein that his family would own until the late twentieth century.[11][16] [17] Khomeini's father was murdered when he was still an infant. Khomeini's supporters assert that Khomeini's father was killed by Reza Shah, however this Shah would not come to power for another twenty-six years.[18] Many historians today believe his father may have been the victim of a local dispute.[19][20] Khomeini's mother and one of his aunts proceeded to raise him until 1918, when both of them died.[21] Ruhollah Khomeini began to study the Qur'an, Islam's holiest book, and elementary Persian at age six [22]. The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned mathematics, science, geography, and other traditional subjects.[21] Throughout his childhood, he would continue his religious and secular education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far,[21] and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh.[23]

After World War I arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak, under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi.[24] In 1920, Khomeini moved to Arak and commenced his studies.[25] The following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred the Islamic seminary to the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved,[23] and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom.[26] Khomeini's studies included Islamic law (sharia) and jurisprudence (fiqh)[22], but by that time, Khomeini had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy (irfan). So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini would continue to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini.[27][28] However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shahabadi,[29] and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadra and Ibn Arabi.[28]

Muslim scholar
Name: Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini
Title: Imam Khomeini
Birth: 24 September, 1902[1][2]
Death: June 3, 1989 (aged 86)
Region: Iran
Maddhab: Shia Islam
Main interests: Fiqh, Irfan, Islamic philosophy, Islamic ethics, Hadith, politics
Notable ideas: Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, Dynamic Fiqh
Works: Islamic Government, Tahrir-ol-vasyleh, Forty Hadith, Adab as Salat
Influences: Mulla Sadra, Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi, Hassan Modarres, Mohammad-Ali Shah Abadi
Influenced: Mohammad Beheshti, Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Morteza Motahhari, Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi, Fazel Lankarani

Ruhollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Najaf and Qum seminaries for decades before he was known in the political scene. He soon became a leading scholar of Shia Islam.[30] He taught political philosophy[31], Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students (e.g. Morteza Motahhari) later became leading Islamic philosophers and also marja. As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics.[32] He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophy and gnosticism that not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion. [33]

[edit] Political aspects

His seminary teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day. He was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s. His first book, Kashf al-Asrar (Uncovering of Secrets)[34][35][unreliable source?] published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of Asrar-e hazar salih (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi.[36] In addition, he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris- the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during 1920s. Khomeini became a marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi.

Khomeini held a moderate standpoint vis-à-vis Greek Philosophy and regarded Aristotle as the founder of logic.[37] He was also influenced by Plato's philosophy. About Plato he said: "In the field of divinity, he has grave and solid views ...". [38] Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini was mainly influenced by Avicenna and Mulla Sadra.[37]

[edit] Literature and poetry

Apart from philosophy, Khomeini was also interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Beginning in his adolescent years, Khomeini composed mystic, political and social poetry. There is one of them —Mass of the Drunk:


In circles mystic I found not
The pleasantness I sought
In monastery was not audible
The music which love wrought

In school I did not find to read
Any book to be from the friend
In minaret it was hard to find
The voice to be of him to tend

In love of books I could not see
That veiled beauty's face
In sacred writs I could not get
The destination's trace

In idol-house my life's span
Was wholly spent in vain
In rivals' gathering I saw
Neither remedy nor pain

The lover's ring now must I join
Haply to find for solace
From the rose- garden of the beloved
A pleasing breeze or a trace

"We" and "I" are both from reason
That are used as ropes to bind
In mass of those who are drunk
Neither "I" is nor "We" to find[39]

His poetry works were published in three collections The Confidant, The Decanter of Love and Turning Point and Divan.[40] Some of his poems are even seen as criticizing spirituality and religion, like the one who was firstly dedicated to a commander in Iran-Iraq war but which was published by his son as a memorial to him. He even claims the controversial "I am the Truth" of the Persian mystic Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj and uses the Ṣūfī terminology of wine for instance.[41]

[edit] Early political activity

At the age of 61, Khomeini found the arena of leadership open following the deaths of Ayatollah Sayyed Husayn Borujerdi (1961), the leading, although quiescent, Shiite religious leader; and Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962), an activist cleric. The clerical class had been on the defensive ever since the 1920s when the secular, anti-clerical modernizer Reza Shah Pahlavi rose to power. Reza's son Muhammad Reza Shah, instituted a "White Revolution," which was a further challenge to the ulama.[42]

[edit] Opposition to the White Revolution

In January 1963, the Shah announced the "White Revolution," a six-point programme of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharing in industry, and a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. Some of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially by the powerful and privileged Shi'a ulama (religious scholars).[43]

Khomeini and his son Mustafa

Ayatollah Khomeini summoned a meeting of the other senior marjas of Qom and persuaded them to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. On January 22, 1963 Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class.

Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah's programmes, issuing a manifesto that bore the signatures of eight other senior Iranian Shia religious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had allegedly violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of submission to America and Israel. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on March 21, 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies.

On the afternoon of 'Ashura (June 3, 1963), Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasah drawing parallels between the infamous tyrant Yazid and the Shah, denouncing the Shah as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.[44]

On June 5, 1963, (15 of Khordad), two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was arrested. This sparked three days of major riots throughout Iran and led to the deaths of some 400. That event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad.[45] Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and released in 1964.

[edit] Opposition to capitulation

During November 1964, Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American military personnel in Iran [46] [47]. The famous "capitulation" law (or "status-of-forces agreement") would allow members of the U.S. armed forces in Iran to be tried in their own military courts. Khomeini was arrested in November 1964 and held for half a year. Upon his release, he was brought before Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur, who tried to convince Khomeini that he should apologize and drop his opposition to the government. Khomeini refused. In fury, Mansur slapped Khomeini's face.[48] Two weeks later, Mansur was assassinated on his way to parliament. Four members of the Fadayan-e Islam were later executed for the murder.

Advisers to the Shah recommended executing the Ayatollah, perhaps an accidental death[citation needed]. The Shah refused and sent Khomeini into exile to Iraq.

[edit] Life in exile

Khomeini at Neauphle-le-Chateau

Khomeini spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shia city of Najaf, Iraq. Initially he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964 where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. He was hosted by a colonel in Turkish Military Intelligence named Ali Cetiner in his own residence, who couldn't find another accommodation alternative for his stay at the time.[49] Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Hussein forced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the two reached power in 1979) after which he went to Neauphle-le-Château in France on a tourist visa, apparently not seeking political asylum, where he stayed for four months. According to Alexandre de Marenches, chief of External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service (now known as the DGSE), France would have suggested to the shah to "organize a fatal accident for Khomeini"; the shah declined the assassination offer, as that would have made Khomeini a martyr.

By the late 1960s, Khomeini was a marja-e taqlid (model for imitation) for "hundreds of thousands" of Shia, one of six or so models in the Shia world.[50]

While in the 1940s Khomeini accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907 — as evidenced by his book Kashf al-Asrar — by the 1970s he rejected the idea.

In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Authority of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih).

This was his most famous and influential work, and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):

  • That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life." [51]
  • Since Shariah, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia. Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in Sharia, the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice,[52] (known as a marja'), as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of "those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people" (i.e. elected parliaments and legislatures) has been proclaimed "wrong" by Islam.[53]
  • This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice, corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers. [54]

A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini and his followers took power, and Khomeini was the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Supreme Leader.

Khomeini in Turkey where it is prohibited to wear a religious turban in government institutions

In the meantime, however, Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade.

In Iran, a number of actions of the shah including his repression of opponents began to build opposition to his regime.

Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as (for example) "... the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone", [55] became common items in the markets of Iran, [56] helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, despite his long-term ideological incompatibility with them.

After the 1977 death of Dr. Ali Shariati (an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians), Khomeini became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah. He was perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt. Adding to his mystique was the circulation among Iranians in the 1970s of an old Shia saying attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kadhem. Prior to his death in 799, al-Kadhem was said to have prophesied that "A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path".[57] In late 1978, a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon. Millions of people were said to have seen it and the event was celebrated in thousands of mosques.[58]

As protest grew so did his profile and importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran in Paris, Khomeini set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime.[59] During the last few months of his exile, Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution.[60]

[edit] Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran

[edit] Return to Iran

Arrival of Khomeini on February 1, 1979 When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he replied that he had none.

Khomeini had refused to return to Iran until the Shah left. On January 16, 1979, the Shah did leave the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return. Two weeks later, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated at at least six million by ABC News reporter Peter Jennings, who was reporting the event from Tehran.

On the airplane on his way to Iran, Khomeini was asked by reporter Peter Jennings: "What do you feel in returning to Iran?" Khomeini answered "Hichi" (nothing) [61]. This statement was considered reflective of his mystical or puritanical belief that Dar al-Islam, rather than the motherland, was what mattered, and also a warning to Iranians who hoped he would be a "mainstream nationalist leader" that they were in for disappointment.[62]

Khomeini adamantly opposed the provisional government of Shapour Bakhtiar, promising "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government. I appoint the government by support of this nation."[63][64] On February 11 [(Bahman 22)], Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against which was a "revolt against God."[65]

[edit] Establishment of new government

As Khomeini's movement gained momentum soldiers began to defect to his side, and Khomeini declared jihad on soldiers who did not surrender.[66] On February 11 [(Bahman 22)], as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed.[67] On March 30, 1979, and March 31, 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting yes (sic).[68]

[edit] Islamic constitution

Although revolutionaries were now in charge and Khomeini was their leader, several secular and religious were unaware of Khomeini's plan for Islamic government by wilayat al-faqih, which involved rule by a marja' Islamic cleric.[69] This provisional constitution for the Islamic Republic did not include the post of supreme Islamic clerical ruler.[70][71][verification needed]

Khomeini and his supporters worked to suppress some former allies and rewrote the proposed constitution. Some newspapers were closed, and those protesting the closings were attacked.[72] Opposition groups such as the National Democratic Front and Muslim People's Republican Party were attacked and finally banned.[73] Through popular support and with charges of questionable balloting, Khomeini supporters gained an overwhelming majority of the seats of the Assembly of Experts[74] which revised the proposed constitution. The newly proposed constitution included an Islamic jurist Supreme Leader of the country, and a Council of Guardians to veto un-Islamic legislation and screen candidates for office, disqualifying those found un-Islamic.

In November 1979, the new constitution of the Islamic Republic was adopted by national referendum.[75] Khomeini himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader (supreme jurist ruler), and officially became known as the "Leader of the Revolution." On February 4, 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran.

[edit] Hostage crisis

On 22 October 1979 the United States admitted the exiled and ailing Shah into the country for cancer treatment. In Iran there was an immediate outcry with both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution. Revolutionaries were reminded of Operation Ajax, 26 years earlier when the Shah fled abroad while American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent.

On 4 November, Islamist students calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line took control of the American Embassy in Tehran, holding 52 embassy staff hostage for 444 days - an event known as the Iran hostage crisis. In America, the hostage-taking was seen as a flagrant violation of international law and aroused intense anger and anti-Iranian feeling.[76][77] In Iran the takeover was immensely popular and earned the support of Khomeini under the slogan "America can't do a damn thing against us."[78] The seizure helped to advance the cause of theocratic government and outflank politicians and groups who emphasized stability and normalized relations with other countries. Khomeini is reported to have told his president: "This action has many benefits ... this has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections."[79] The new theocratic constitution was successfully passed by referendum a month after the hostage crisis began. The effect was the splitting of the opposition into two groups - radicals supporting the hostage taking, and the moderates who opposed it.[79][80] On February 23, 1980, Khomeini proclaimed Iran's Majlis would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, and demanded that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran for crimes against the nation. Although the Shah died a few months later, during the summer, the crisis continued. In Iran, supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a "Den of Espionage", publicizing details regarding armaments, espionage equipment and many volumes of official and classified documents which they found there.

[edit] Relationship with other Islamic and non-aligned countries

Khomeini believed in Muslim unity and solidarity and the export of Islamic revolution throughout the world. "Establishing the Islamic state world-wide belong to the great goals of the revolution."[81] He declared the birth week of Muhammad (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi' al-awwal) as the Unity week. Then he declared the last Friday of Ramadan as International Day of Quds in 1979.

Despite his devotion to Islam, Khomeini also emphasized international revolutionary solidarity, expressing support for the PLO, the IRA, Cuba, and the South African anti-apartheid struggle.

[edit] Iran-Iraq War

Shortly after assuming power, Khomeini began calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq,[82] the one large state besides Iran with a Shia majority population. At the same time Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan, and, of course, to undermine Iranian Islamic revolutionary attempts to incite the Shi'a majority of his country.

With what many Iranians believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, in September 1980 Iraq launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988). A combination of fierce resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Khomeini's stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. After this reversal, Khomeini refused an Iraqi offer of a truce, instead demanding reparation and toppling of Saddam Hussein from power.[83][84][85]

Although Iran's population and economy were three times the size of Iraq's, that country was aided by Western and Soviet countries with whatever help it needed against Iran. Outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, but the West wanted to be sure the Islamic revolution did not spread to Iran's smaller oil-exporting neighbors in the oil rich Persian Gulf.

The war continued for another six years, its costs mounting. 1988 saw deadly month-long Iraqi missile attacks on Tehran, mounting economic problems, the demoralization of Iranian troops, attacks by the American Navy on Iranian ships and oil rigs in the Persian Gulf, and the recapture by Iraq of the Faw penninsula. In July of that year, Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. Despite the high cost of the war - 450,000 to 950,000 Iranian casualties and USD $300 billion[86] - Khomeini insisted that the pursuit of overthrow of Saddam had not been a mistake. In a 'Letter to Clergy' he wrote: '... we do not repent, nor are we sorry for even a single moment for our performance during the war. Have we forgotten that we fought to fulfill our religious duty and that the result is a marginal issue?'[87]

[edit] Rushdie fatwa

In early 1989, Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, an India-born British author. Khomeini claimed that Rushdie's assassination was a religious duty for Muslims because of his alleged blasphemy against Muhammad in his novel, The Satanic Verses, published in 1988. Rushdie's book contains passages that many Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini – considered offensive to Islam and the prophet, but the fatwa has also been attacked for violating the rules of fiqh by not allowing the accused an opportunity to defend himself, and because "even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence."[88]

Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked. Khomeini explained,

Even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell. [89]

Rushdie himself was not killed but Hitoshi Igarashi, the Japanese translator of the book The Satanic Verses, was murdered and two other translators of the book survived attempted assassinations. [90]

[edit] Life under Khomeini

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim Part of a series on Shī‘ah Islam

The Fourteen Infallibles

Muhammad · Fatimah

The Twelve Imams
Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim · al-Rida · al-Taqi
al-Hadi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi


Fourteen Infallibles
Occultation (Minor · Major)
Akhbar · Usul · Ijtihad
Taqleed · 'Aql · Irfan


Judgement Day · Justice
Prophethood · Imamate


Prayer · Fasting · Pilgrimage
Charity · Taxes · Jihad
Command Justice · Forbid Evil
Love the family of Muhammad
Dissociate from their Enemies

Holy cities

Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem
Najaf · Karbala · Mashhad
Samarra · Kadhimayn


Usuli · Akhbari · Shaykhi
Nimatullahi · Safaviya
Qizilbash · Alevism · Alawism
Bektashi · Tabarie


Marja · Ayatollah · Allamah
Hojatoleslam · Mujtahid
List of marjas · List of Ayatollahs

Hadith collections

Peak of Eloquence · The Psalms of Islam · Book of Fundamentals · The Book in Scholar's Lieu · Civilization of Laws · The Certainty · Book of Sulaym ibn Qays · Oceans of Light · Wasael ush-Shia · Reality of Certainty · Keys of Paradise

In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran from exile February 1, 1979, Khomeini made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: A popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran and with which the clergy would not interfere. He promised that "no one should remain homeless in this country," and that Iranians would have free telephone, heating, electricity, bus services and free oil at their doorstep. While many changes came to Iran under Khomeini, these promises have yet to be fulfilled in the Islamic Republic.[citation needed][91]

Under Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women by Islamic Revolutionary Guards and other Islamic groups[92] Women were required to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. Alcoholic drinks, most Western movies, the practice of men and women swimming or sunbathing together were banned.[93] The Iranian educational curriculum was Islamized at all levels with the Islamic Cultural Revolution; the "Committee for Islamization of Universities"[94] carried this out thoroughly. The broadcasting of any music other than martial or religious on Iranian radio and television was banned by Khomeini on July 1979.[95] The ban lasted 10 years (approximately the rest of his life). [96]

[edit] Emigration and economy

Khomeini is said to have stressed "the spiritual over the material".[97] [98] Six months after his first speech he expressed exasperation with complaints about the sharp drop in Iran's standard of living: 'I cannot believe that the purpose of all these sacrifices was to have less expensive melons' [99] On another occasion emphasizing the importance of martyrdom over material prosperity: "Could anyone wish his child to be martyred to obtain a good house? This is not the issue. The issue is another world." [100] He is also reportedly famous for answering a question about his economic policies by declaring that 'economics is for donkeys'.[101] This low opinion of economics is said to be "one factor explaining the inchoate performance of the Iranian economy since the revolution."[97] Another factor was the long war with Iraq, whose cost led to government debt and inflation, eroding personal incomes, and unprecedented unemployment.[102]

While Iran became more strict Islamically under Khomeini, absolute poverty rose by nearly 45% during the first 6 years of his rule. [103] Emigration from Iran also developed, reportedly for the first time that country's history.[104] Since the revolution, an estimated "two to four million entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled craftspeople (and their capital)" have emigrated to other countries. [105] [106]

[edit] Suppression of enemies and opposition

Opposition to the religious rule of the clergy or Islamic government in general was often met with harsh punishments. In a talk at the Fayzieah School in Qom, August 30, 1979, Khomeini warned opponents: "Those who are trying to bring corruption and destruction to our country in the name of democracy will be oppressed. They are worse than Bani-Ghorizeh Jews, and they must be hanged. We will oppress them by God's order and God's call to prayer."[107]

The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family left Iran and escaped harm, but hundreds of former members of the overthrown monarchy and military met their end in firing squads, with critics complaining of "secrecy, vagueness of the charges, the absence of defense lawyers or juries", or the opportunity of the accused "to defend themselves." [108] In later years these were followed in larger numbers by the erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini's movement -- Marxists and socialists, mostly university students -- who opposed the theocratic regime. [109]

In the 1988 massacre of Iranian prisoners, following the People's Mujahedin of Iran operation Forough-e Javidan against the Islamic Republic, Khomeini issued an order to judicial officials to judge every Iranian political prisoner and kill those who would not repent anti-regime activities. Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400 [110] to 30,000.[111][112][113]

Although many hoped the revolution would bring freedom of speech and press, this was not to be. In defending forced closing of opposition newspapers and attacks on opposition protesters by club-wielding vigilantes, Khomeini explained, 'The club of the pen and the club of the tongue is the worst of clubs, whose corruption is a 100 times greater than other clubs.'[114]

[edit] Minority religions

Life for religious minorities was mixed under Khomeini. Non-Muslim religious minorities no longer had equal rights. Senior government posts are reserved for Muslims. Schools set up by Jewish, Christian and Zoroastrians must be run by Muslim principals.[115] Compensation for death paid to the family of a non-Muslim was (by law) less than if the victim was a Muslim. Conversion to Islam is encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim.[116] Iran's non-Muslim population has fallen dramatically. For example, the Jewish population in Iran dropped from 80,000 to 30,000 in the first two decades of the revolution.[117]

However, four of the 270 seats in parliament are reserved for three non-Islamic minority religions, under the Islamic constitution that Khomeini oversaw. Khomeini also has called for unity between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims (Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran).[118]

Prerevolutionary statements by Khomeini had been antagonistic towards Jews, but shortly after his return from exile in 1979, he issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Baha'is) be treated well. [119] [120] In power, Khomeini distinguished between Zionism as a secular political party that employs Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaism as the religion of Moses.[121]

Unlike the other non-Muslims in Iran, the 300,000 members of the Bahá'í Faith, were actively harassed. "Some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities." [122] Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were either killed or disappeared.[123]

Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini believed Bahá'í to be apostates, [124]

He claimed they were a political rather than a religious movement,[125][126] declaring:

the Baha'is are not a sect but a party, which was previously supported by Britain and now the United States. The Baha'is are also spies just like the Tudeh [Communist Party]. [127]

[edit] Death and funeral

After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Khomeini died of a heart attack on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 86. [128] Iranians poured out into the cities and streets to mourn Khomeini's death in a "completely spontaneous and unorchestrated outpouring of grief." [129]

Despite the hundred-degree heat, crushing mobs created an impassable sea of black for miles as they wailed, chanted and rhythmically beat themselves in anguish ... As the hours passed, fire trucks had to be brought in to spray water on the crowd to provide relief from the heat, while helicopters were flown in to ferry the eight killed and more than four hundred injured ... [130]

Two million people attended his funeral[131]. Iranian officials aborted Khomeini’s first funeral, after a large crowd stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a last glimpse of his body. At one point, Khomeini's body actually almost fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to grab pieces of the death shroud. The second funeral was held under much tighter security. Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and heavily armed security personnel surrounded it. In accordance with Islamic tradition, the casket was only to carry the body to the burial site. Khomeini's grave is now housed within a larger mausoleum complex.

[edit] Successorship

Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri, a major figure of the Revolution, was designated by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader. The principle of velayat-e faqih and the Islamic constitution called for the Supreme Ruler to be a marja or grand ayatollah, and of the dozen or so grand ayatollahs living in 1981 only Montazeri accepted the concept of rule by Islamic jurist.[132][unreliable source?] In 1989 Montazeri began to call for liberalization, freedom for political parties. Following the execution of thousands of political prisoners by the Islamic government, Montazeri told Khomeini 'your prisons are far worse than those of the Shah and his SAVAK.'[133] After a letter of his complaints was leaked to Europe and broadcast on the BBC, a furious Khomeini ousted him from his position as official successor.

Writers in the West report that the amendment made to Iran's constitution removing the requirement that the Supreme Leader to be a Marja, was to deal with the problem of a lack of any remaining Grand Ayatollahs willing to accept "velayat-e faqih."[134][135][136] However, others say the reason marjas were not elected was because of their lack of votes in the Assembly of Experts, for example Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani had the backing of only 13 members of the assembly. Furthermore, there were other marjas present who accepted "velayat-e faqih"[137][138][139] Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri continued his criticism of the regime and in 1997 was put under house arrest for questioning the unaccountable rule exercised by the supreme leader.[140][141][142] He was released in 2003.

[edit] Political thought and legacy

See also: History of political Islam in Iran

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini's views on governance evolved. Originally declaring rule by monarchs or others permissible so long as sharia law was followed [143] Khomeini later adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist (a marja'), would insure Sharia was properly followed (wilayat al-faqih), [144] before finally insisting the ruling jurist need not be a leading one and Sharia rule could be overruled by that jurist if necessary to serve the interests of Islam and the "divine government" of the Islamic state. [145][unreliable source?]

Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (ولایت فقیه, velayat-e faqih) did not win the support of the leading Iranian Shi'i clergy of the time.[146][unreliable source?] Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, although none came around to supporting Khomeini's vision of a theocratic Islamic Republic.[146]

Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be a democratic republic is disputed. According to the state-run Aftab News, [147] both ultraconservative (Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi) and reformist opponents of the regime (Akbar Ganji and Abdolkarim Soroush) believe he did not, while regime officials and supporters like Ali Khamenei[148], Mohammad Khatami and Mortaza Motahhari[149] believe Khomeini intended the Islamic republic to be democratic and that it is so.[150] Khomeini himself also made statements at different times indicating both support and opposition to democracy.[151]

One scholar, Shaul Bakhash, explains this disagreement as coming from Khomeini's belief that the huge turnout of Iranians in anti-Shah demonstrations during the revolution constituted a 'referendum' in favor of an Islamic republic.[152] Khomeini also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim countries than any government based on elected representatives.[153]

Khomeini offered himself as a "champion of Islamic revival" and unity, emphasizing issues Muslims agreed upon - the fight against Zionism and imperialism - and downplaying Shia issues that would divide Shia from Sunni.[154] Khomeini strongly opposed close relations with neither Eastern or Western Bloc nations, believing the Islamic world should be its own bloc, or rather converge into a single unified power.[155] He viewed Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. The Islamic Republic banned or discouraged popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature.[156] In the Western world it is said "his glowering visage became the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture" and "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam,"[157] making the word `Ayatollah` "a synonym for a dangerous madman ... in popular parlance."[158] This has particularly been the case in the United States where some Iranians complained that even at universities they felt the need to hide their Iranian identity for fear of physical attack. [159] There Khomeini and the Islamic Republic are remembered for the American embassy hostage taking and accused of sponsoring hostage-taking and terrorist attacks,[160][161] and which continues to apply economic sanctions against Iran.

Before taking power Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. "We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence."[162] However once in power Khomeini took a firm line against dissent, warning opponents of theocracy for example: "I repeat for the last time: abstain from holding meetings, from blathering, from publishing protests. Otherwise I will break your teeth."[163]

Many of Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. This conflict came to a head during the writing of the Islamic constitution when many newspapers were closed by the government. Khomeini angrily told the intellectuals:

Yes, we are reactionaries, and you are enlightened intellectuals: You intellectuals do not want us to go back 1400 years. You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom. [164]

In contrast to his alienation from Iranian intellectuals, and "in an utter departure from all other Islamist movements," Khomeini embraced international revolution and Third World solidarity, giving it "precedence over Muslim fraternity. From the time Khomeini's supporters gained control of the media until his death, the Iranian media "devoted extensive coverage to non-Muslim revolutionary movements (from the Sandinistas to the African National Congress and the Irish Republican Army) and downplayed the role of the Islamic movements considered conservative, such as the Afghan mujahidin."[165]

Khomeini's legacy to the economy of the Islamic Republic has been concern for the mustazafin, but not always results. During the 1990s the mustazafin and disabled war veterans rioted on several occasions, protesting the demolition of their shantytowns and rising food prices, etc.[166][unreliable source?] Khomeini's distain for the science of economics ("economics is for donkeys") is said to have been "mirrored" by the populist redistribution policies of Iran's current president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who allegedly wears "his contempt for economic orthodoxy as a badge of honour", and has overseen sluggish growth and rising inflation and unemployment.[167]

[edit] Famous controversial fatawa (Legal rulings)

Although homosexual relationships are illegal (punishable by death) in Iran, sex reassignment operations are permitted. In 1983, spiritual leader Ayatollah Khomeini passed a fatwa allowing sex-change operations as a cure for "diagnosed transsexuals".

[edit] Appearance and habits

Khomeini was described as "slim," but athletic and "heavily boned." He was known for his punctuality:

He's so punctual that if he doesn't turn up for lunch at exactly ten past everyone will get worried, because his work is regulated in such a way that he turned up for lunch at exactly that time every day. He goes to bed exactly on time. He eats exactly on time. And he wakes up exactly on time. He changes his frock every time he comes back from the mosque. [168]

Khomeini was also known for his aloofness and stern demeanor. He is said to have had "variously inspired admiration, awe, and fear from those around him."[169] His practice of moving "through the halls of the madresehs never smiling at anybody or anything. ... his practice of ignoring his audience while he thought, contributed to his charisma." [170]

Khomeini adhered to traditional beliefs of Islamic cleanliness holding that non-Moslems - like urine, excrement, blood, wine, sweat, etc. - were one of eleven impure things contact with which required major ritual washing or Ghusl before prayer or salah.[171][172] He is reported to have refused to eat or drink in a restaurant unless he knew for sure the waiter was a Muslim.[173]

[edit] Mystique

Even more famous was his mystique. He benefited from the widespread circulation of "an old Shia saying" attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kazim who is said to have prophesied shortly before his death in 799 that

'A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God.' [174]

Khomeini was the first and only Iranian cleric to be addressed as "Imam", a title hitherto reserved in Iran for the twelve infallible leaders of the early Shi'a.[175] He was also associated with the Mahdi or 12th Imam of Shia belief in a number of ways. One of his titles was Na'eb-e Imam (Deputy to the [Twelfth Imam). His enemies were often attacked as taghut and mofsidin fi'l-arz (corrupters of the earth), religious terms used for enemies of the Twelfth Imam. Many of the officials of the overthrown Shah's government executed by Revolutionary Courts were convicted of "fighting against the Twelfth Imam". When a deputy in the majlis asked Khomeini if he was the 'promised Mahdi', Khomeini did not answer, "astutely" neither confirming nor denying the title.[176]

Before the revolution, in late 1978, a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon.

Tears of joy were shed and huge quantities of sweets and fruits were consumed as millions of people jumped for joy, shouting 'I've seen the Imam in the moon.' The event was celebrated in thousands of mosques with mullahs reminding the faithful that a sure sign of the coming of the Mahdi was that the sun would rise in the West. Khomeini, representing the sun, was now in France and his face was shining in the moon like a sun. People were ready to swear on the Qur'an that they had seen Khomeini's face in the moon. Even the Tudeh Party [the party of "Scientific Socialism"] shared in the [enthusiasm]. Its paper Navid wrote: 'Our toiling masses, fighting against world-devouring imperialism headed by the blood-sucking United States, have seen the face of their beloved Imam and leader, Khomeini the Breaker of Idols, in the moon. A few pipsqueaks cannot deny what a whole nation has seen with its own eyes.' [177]

As the revolution gained momentum, even some non-supporters exhibited awe, called him "magnificently clear-minded, single-minded and unswerving."[178] His image was as "absolute, wise, and indispensable leader of the nation"[179]

The Imam, it was generally believed, had shown by his uncanny sweep to power, that he knew how to act in ways which others could not begin to understand. His timing was extraordinary, and his insight into the motivation of others, those around him as well as his enemies, could not be explained as ordinary knowledge. This emergent belief in Khomeini as a divinely guided figure was carefully fostered by the clerics who supported him and spoke up for him in front of the people. [180]

Even many secularists who firmly disapproved of his policies were said to feel the power of his "messianic" appeal.[181] Comparing him to a father figure who retains the enduring loyalty even of children he disapproves of, journalist Afshin Molavi writes of the defenses of Khomeini he's "heard in the most unlikely settings":

A whiskey-drinking professor told an American journalist that Khomeini brought pride back to Iranians. A women's rights activist told me that Khomeini was not the problem; it was his conservative allies who had directed him wrongly. A nationalist war veteran, who held Iran's ruling clerics in contempt, carried with him a picture of 'the Imam'. [182]

Another journalist tells the story of an Iranian, who following bitter criticism of the regime in which he tells her he wants his son to leave the country and "repeatedly made the point that life had been better" under the Shah, turns "ashen faced" and speechless upon hearing the 85+-year-old Imam might be dying, pronouncing 'this is terrible for my country.'[183]

[edit] Family and descendants

Khomeini with grandson Husain Khomeini and granddaughter Zahra Eshraghi.

In 1929, (some say 1931[184]) Khomeini married Batoul Saqafi Khomeini, the [184] daughter of a cleric in Tehran. By all accounts their marriage was harmonious and happy.[184] She died in 2009.[185] They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. The elder son, Mustafa, is rumored[citation needed] to have been murdered in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq and Khomeini accused SAVAK of orchestrating it[citation needed].

Khomeini's notable grandchildren include:

  • Husain Khomeini, (Sayid Husain Khomeini) Khomeini's other grandson, son of Sayid Mustafa Khomeini, is a mid-level cleric who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. In 2003 he was quoted as saying:
Iranians need freedom now, and if they can only achieve it with American interference I think they would welcome it. As an Iranian, I would welcome it. [186] In that same year Husain Khomeini visited the United States, where he met figures such as Reza Pahlavi II, the son of the last Shah. Later that year, Husain returned to Iran after receiving an urgent message from his grandmother. According to Michael Ledeen, quoting "family sources", he was blackmailed into returning.[187] In 2006, he called for an American invasion and overthrow of the Islamic Republic, telling Al-Arabiyah television station viewers, "If you were a prisoner, what would you do? I want someone to break the prison [doors open]."[188]. Another of Khomeini's grandchildren, Ali Eshraghi, was disqualified from the 2008 parliamentary elections on grounds of being insufficiently loyal to the principles of the Islamic revolution, but later reinstated.[189]

[edit] Works

Khomeini was an prolific writer (200 of his books are online[190]) who authored commentaries on the Qur'an,on Islamic jurisprudence, the roots of Islamic law, and Islamic traditions. He also released books about philosophy, gnosticism, poetry, literature, government and politics.[191] Some of his books:

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c DeFronzo 2007, p. 286. "born 24 September, 1902..."
  2. ^ a b c Karsh 2007, p. 220. "Born on 24 September, 1902, into a devout small-town family, Khomeini..."
  3. ^ Shenon, Philip. "Khomeini's Tomb Attracts Pilgrims." The New York Times, 8 July 1990. Accessed 15 February 2009. Quote: "Even from the grave, Ayatollah Khomeini - so reviled and feared in the West, still so beloved by millions of the faithful here - is continuing to command influence in the nation that he led as its supreme spiritual leader for nearly 10 years."
  4. ^ Arjomand, S.A. "Khumayni." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill, 2008.
  5. ^ The Mystic Who Lit The Fires of Hatred. 7 Jan 1980
  6. ^ Marzorati, Gerald, "Salman Rushdie: Fiction's Embattled Infidel", The New York Times Magazine, January 29, 1989, quoted in Pipes, The Rushdie Affair, (1990)
  7. ^ a b Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.138
  8. ^ a b TIME. "TIME Person of the Year 1979: Ayatullah Khomeini." 7 January 1980. Accessed 22 November 2008 at
  9. ^ Moin , Khomeini, (2001), p.201
  10. ^ BBC: Historic Figures: Ayatollah Khomeini (1900-1989)
  11. ^ a b Khomeini & Algar 2002, p. ix
  12. ^ a b Moin 2000, p. 2
  13. ^ Some sources place Khomeini's birth date on 17 May, 1900, or another date in September 1902. See Encyclopedia Britannica.
  14. ^ Iran Chamber Society: Ayatollah Rouhollah Mousavi Khomeini (Imam Khomeini)
  15. ^ Moin 2000, pp. 2-3
  16. ^ Moin 2000, p. 3. "Five years or so later, in 1839,... remain in his family for well over a century and a half."
  17. ^ Karsh 2007, p. 220. "...Khomeini lost his father when he was five months old."
  18. ^ Anderson, Raymond H. (1989-06-04). "Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 89, the Unwavering Iranian Spiritual Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. 
  19. ^ Moin 2000, pp. 6-8
  20. ^ Daniel 2001, p. 176. "His father was murdered... (in a dispute with a rival family..."
  21. ^ a b c Moin 2000, p. 18
  22. ^ a b Reich 1990, p. 311
  23. ^ a b Milani 1994, p. 85
  24. ^ Moin 2000, p. 22
  25. ^ Brumberg 2001, p. 45. "By 1920, the year Khomeini moved to Arak..."
  26. ^ Moin 2000, p. 28. "Khomeini's madraseh in Qom was known as the Dar al-Shafa..."
  27. ^ Moin 2000, p. 42
  28. ^ a b Brumberg 2001, p. 46
  29. ^ Rāhnamā 1994, pp. 70-1
  30. ^ BBC - History - Ayatollah Khomeini (1900-1989)
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ Ruhollah Khomeini - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ Kashf al-Asrar
  35. ^ Moin, Baqer, Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah (2001), p.60)
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Ayatullah
  37. ^ a b Philosophy as Viewed by Ruhollah Khomeini
  38. ^ Kashful-Asrar, p. 33 by Ruhollah Khomeini (
  39. ^ Imam Khomeini's Poems
  40. ^ [3]
  41. ^ Michael Fischer, Mehdi Abedi(2002). Debating Muslims. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 452
  42. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Ayatollah
  43. ^ [4]
  44. ^ [5], Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 104.
  45. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 112.
  46. ^ Khomeini's speech against capitalism, IRIB World Service.
  47. ^ Shirley, Know Thine Enemy (1997), p. 207.
  48. ^ The Unknown Ayatullah Khomeini - TIME
  49. ^ The People's Shah
  50. ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.246
  51. ^ Islam and Revolution (1981), pp. 29-30.
  52. ^ Islam and Revolution (1981), p. 59.
  53. ^ Islam and Revolution, (1981), p.31, 56
  54. ^ Islam and Revolution (1981), p.54.
  55. ^ Khomeini on a cassette tape [source: Gozideh Payam-ha Imam Khomeini (Selections of Imam Khomeini’s Messages), Tehran, 1979, (Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.193)
  56. ^ Parviz Sabeti, head of SAVAK's 'anti-subversion unit', believed the number of cassettes "exceeded 100,000." (Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.193)
  57. ^ Mackay, Iranians (1996), p.277; source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25
  58. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, p.238, see also Harney, The Priest (1998)
  59. ^ Harney, The Priest (1998), p.?
  60. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.203
  61. ^ Hichi !!!
  62. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p.199
  63. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.241
  64. ^ امروز در آینه تاریخ
  65. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.204
  66. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.205-6
  67. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.206
  68. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  69. ^ World: Middle East Analysis: The forces for change
  70. ^ Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, (Tauris, 1997) p.22-3
  71. ^ Khomeini's REVERSALS of Promises
  72. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.219
  73. ^ Bakhash, Shaul The Reign of the Ayatollahs p.68-9
  74. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran Tauris, 1997 p.22-3
  75. ^ Omar Sial: A Guide to the Legal System of the Islamic Republic of Iran
  76. ^ "Inside Iran", Maziar Bahari, Published 11 September 2008
  77. ^ Bowden, Mark, Guests of the Ayatollah, Atlantic Monthly Press, (2006)
  78. ^ p.105, Reading Lolita in Tehran : a Memoir in Books by Azar Nafisi
  79. ^ a b Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.228
  80. ^ Example of anti-theocratic support for the hostage crisis in Nafisi, Azar, Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books, Random House, 2003, p.105-6, 112
  81. ^ (Resalat, 25.3.1988) (quoted on p.69, The Constitution of Iran by Asghar Schirazi, Tauris, 1997
  82. ^ 1980 April 8 - Broadcast call by Khomeini for the pious of Iraq to overthrow Saddam and his regime. Al-Dawa al-Islamiya party in Iraqi is the hoped for catalyst to start rebellion. From: Mackey, The Iranians, (1996), p.317
  83. ^ Wright, In the Name of God, (1989), p.126
  84. ^ Time Magazine [6]
  85. ^ The Iran–Iraq War: Strategy of Stalemate [7]
  86. ^ (estimate by Iranian officials) Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.252
  87. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.285
  88. ^ Bernard Lewis's comment on Rushdie fatwa in The Crisis of Islam (2003) by Bernard Lewis, p.141-2
  89. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.284
  90. ^ "Japanese Translator of Rushdie Book Found Slain", WEISMAN, Steven R., July 13 1991.
  91. ^ "Khomeini the populist politician had ... made rash and simplistic promises to the dispossessed - that the government would provide homes for the poor throughout the country, or that everyone would have free water and electricity." (Does not specifically mention the speech at Beheshte Zahra Cemetery.) Moin, Baqer, Khomeini, (2000), p.258)
  92. ^ Gobal Security, Intelligence: Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force
  93. ^ "Khomeini bans broadcast music", New York Times, July 24, 1979
  94. ^ Secretariat of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. Brief history of the SCCR
  95. ^ "Khomeini bans broadcast music", New York Times, July 24, 1979
  96. ^ The ban started with the revolution and lasted 10 years. Hossein Shahidi. 'BBC Persian Service 60 years on.' The Iranian. September 24, 2001
  97. ^ a b An Introduction to the Modern Middle East, By David S. Sorenson
  98. ^ (Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (2001), p.125)
  99. ^ (Khomeini July 1979) [quoted in The Government of God p.111. "see the FBIS for typical broadcasts, especially GBIS-MEA-79-L30, July 5, 1979 v.5 n.130, reporting broadcasts of the National Voice of Iran.]
  100. ^ (Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (2001), p.125)(p.124-5 source: 'Khomeini to the Craftsmen' broadcast on Teheran Domestic Service 13 December 1979, FBIS-MEA-79-242)
  101. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, (2006), p.134
  102. ^ Moin, Baqer, Khomeini, (2000), p.267
  103. ^ Based on the government's own Planning and Budget Organization statistics, from: Jahangir Amuzegar, 'The Iranian Economy before and after the Revolution,' Middle East Journal 46, n.3 (summer 1992): 421)
  104. ^ Ebadi, Shirin, Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope by Shirin Ebadi with Azadeh Moaveni, Random House, 2006, p.78-9
  105. ^ Iran's Economic Morass: Mismanagement and Decline under the Islamic Republic ISBN 0-944029-67-1
  106. ^ Huge cost of Iranian brain drain By Frances Harrison
  107. ^ Democracy? I meant theocracy By Dr. Jalal Matini, The Iranian, August 5, 2003
  108. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.61
  109. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.111
  110. ^ Massacre 1988 (Pdf)
  111. ^ Memories of a slaughter in Iran
  112. ^ Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'
  113. ^ The Millimeter Revolution By ELIZABETH RUBIN .
  114. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.146
  115. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.210
  116. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.216
  117. ^ Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.207
  118. ^ "4% belong to the Sunni branch",
  119. ^ Wright, Last Revolution (2000), p.207
  120. ^ IRAN: Life of Jews Living in Iran
  121. ^ R. Khomeini 'The Report Card on Jews Differs from That on the Zionists,' Ettelaat, 11 May 1979]
  122. ^ Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran, by Said Amir Arjomand, Oxford University Press, 1988, p.169
  123. ^ Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran" (PDF). Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 
  124. ^ for example issuing a fatwa stating:

    It is not acceptable that a tributary [non-Muslim who pays tribute] changes his religion to another religion not recognized by the followers of the previous religion. For example, from the Jews who become Bahai's nothing is accepted except Islam or execution. from Poll Tax, 8. Tributary conditions, (13), Tahrir al-Vasileh, volume 2, pp. 497-507, Quoted in A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Westview Press/ Boulder and London, c1984, p.432

  125. ^ Cockroft, James (1979-02-23). Seven Days. 
  126. ^ "U.S. Jews Hold Talks With Khomeini Aide on Outlook for Rights". The New York Times. 1979-02-13. 
  127. ^ source: Kayhan International, May 30, 1983; see also Firuz Kazemzadeh, 'The Terror Facing the Baha'is' New York Review of Books, 1982, 29 (8): 43-44.]
  128. ^ {{Spencer, William. The Middle East. Global Studies Series. Eleventh Edition]June 2007}}
  129. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.312
  130. ^ In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade by Robin Wright, (1989), p.204
  131. ^
  132. ^ Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4. Quoted in The Islamic Republic Will Be Run By the Most Learned Jurist
  133. ^ Ahmad Khomeini’s letter, in Resalat, cited in The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution, rev. ed. by Shaul Bakhash, p.282
  134. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.293
  135. ^ Mackey, SandraThe Iranians (1996), p.353
  136. ^ Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4
  137. ^ «آیت الله خامنه ای با ولایت فرد مخالف بود» -
  138. ^ [8]
  139. ^ خبرگزاری آفتاب - توضیحات هاشمی درباره شورای رهبری
  140. ^ Profile: Iran's dissident ayatollah BBC NEWS
  141. ^ [9]
  142. ^ Redirect
  143. ^ 1942 book/pamphet Kashf al-Asrar quoted in Islam and Revolution
  144. ^ 1970 book Hukumat Islamiyyah or Islamic Government, quoted in Islam and Revolution
  145. ^ Hamid Algar, 'Development of the Concept of velayat-i faqih since the Islamic Revolution in Iran,' paper presented at London Conference on wilayat al-faqih, in June, 1988] [p.135-8] Also Ressalat, Tehran, 7 January 1988. Quoted in "The Rule of the Religious Jurist in Iran," by Abdulaziz Sachedina, from p.135-6 of Iran at the Crossroads, Edited by John Esposito and R.K. Ramazani, Palgrave, 2001. Quoted in Khomeini on how Laws in Iran will strictly adhere to God's perfect and unchanging divine law
  146. ^ a b The Failure of Political Islam by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4 quoted in "the vilayat-i faqih thesis was rejected by almost the entire dozen grand ayatollahs living in 1981" ]
  147. ^ Ganji, Sorush and Mesbah Yazdi(Persian)
  148. ^ The principles of Islamic republic from viewpoint of Imam Khomeini in the speeches of the leader(Persian)
  149. ^ About Islamic republic(Persian)
  150. ^ Ayatollah Khomeini and the Contemporary Debate on Freedom
  151. ^ "Democracy? I meant theocracy", by Dr. Jalal Matini, Translation & Introduction by Farhad Mafie, August 5, 2003, The Iranian,
  152. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.73
  153. ^ Khomeini, Islam and Revolution, (1982), p.56
  154. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival Norton, (2006), p.137
  155. ^ Bayan, No.4 (1990), p.8)
  156. ^ Iran president bans Western music
  157. ^ Nasr, Vali The Shia Revival, Norton, 2006, p.138
  158. ^ A Revolution Misunderstood. Charlotte Wiedemann
  159. ^ "Inside Iran", Maziar Bahari, Published 11 September 2008
  160. ^ Wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p.28, 33,
  161. ^ for example the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing see:Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis Magnus Ranstorp, Department of International Relations University of St. Andrews St. Martins Press, New York, 1997, p.54, 117
  162. ^ Sahifeh Nour (Vol.2 Page 242)
  163. ^ in Qom, Iran, October 22, 1979, quoted in, The Shah and the Ayatollah : Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution by Fereydoun Hoveyda, Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003, p.88
  164. ^ p.47, Wright. source: Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School, August 24, 1979; reproduced in Rubin, Barry and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader, Oxford University Press, 2002, p.34
  165. ^ Roy, The Failure of Political Islam. 1994, p.175
  166. ^ In March 1992, disabled war veterans protested against the mismanagement of the Foundation of the Disinherited. January and May 1992. In January 1992 a Tehran mob attacked grocery stores in protest against rise in subsidized milk prices. In May 1992 there were protest by squatters against demolition of shantytowns in Mashhad. Government buildings were set alight. (Mackey, Sandra, The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the soul of a nation, Dutton, c1996. p.361, 362, 366). Quoted in Class Division and Poverty Will Not Be Tolerated
  167. ^ "Economics is for donkeys" Robert Tait. 11 September 2008
  168. ^ According to a daughter quoted in In the Name of God by Robin Wright c1989, p.45
  169. ^ Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini, (2001), p.53
  170. ^ Mackay, Iranians (198?) p.224
  171. ^ fatwa #83 from A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael' + Khomeini who was the former Iranian representative at the United Nations, with Ervand Abrahamian. Quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : Essays on the Islamic Republic University of California Press, (1993)
    by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Translated by J. Borujerdi, with a Foreword by Michael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi, Westview Press/ Boulder and London c1984, p.48
  172. ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.383
  173. ^ Personal communications from Dr. Mansur Farhang, a biographer and supporter of Khomeini who was the former Iranian representative at the United Nations, with Ervand Abrahamian. Quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : Essays on the Islamic Republic University of California Press, (1993)
  174. ^ (Mackay Iranians, p.277. Source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25
  175. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.201
  176. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.131
  177. ^ source: Navid n.28][Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, p.238
  178. ^ Harney, The Priest and the King (1998) p.173-4
  179. ^ Benard/Khalilzad "The Government of God", 1984, p.121
  180. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.297
  181. ^ Wright, In the Name of God, (1989) (p.21-22)
  182. ^ Molavi, The Soul of Iran, (2005), p.256
  183. ^ In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade by Robin Wright c1989, p.21-22
  184. ^ a b c Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 90-1
  185. ^ Wife of founder of Iran's Islamic republic dies. March 23, 2009
  186. ^ "Make Iran Next, Says Ayatollah's Grandson", Jamie Wilson, August 10, 2003, The Observer
  187. ^ Veiled Threats Lure Ayatollah's Grandson Home By Michael A. Ledeen, January 6, 2004
  188. ^ Ayatollah's grandson calls for US overthrow of Iran, By PHILIP SHERWELL 19/06/2006
  189. ^ Khomeini grandson returns to poll, 13 February 2008,
  190. ^ World: Middle East Ayatollah Khomeini on the Web
  191. ^ The Works and Declarations of Imam Khomeini

[edit] Bibliography

  • Brumberg, Daniel (2001), Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226077586 
  • Daniel, Elton L. (2001), The History of Iran, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313307318 
  • DeFronzo, James (2007), Revolutions And Revolutionary Movements, Westview Press, ISBN 0813343542 
  • Karsh, Efraim (2007), Islamic Imperialism: A History, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300122632 
  • Khomeini, Ruhollah; Algar, Hamid (2002), Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist, Alhoda UK, ISBN 9643354997 
  • Keddie, Nikkie R. (2003), Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300098561 
  • Milani, Mohsen M. (1994), The Making of Iran's Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic, Westview Press, ISBN 0813384761 
  • Moin, Baqer (2000), Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0312264909 
  • Rāhnamā, 'Ali (1994), Pioneers of Islamic Revival, Macmillan, ISBN 1856492540 
  • Reich, Bernard (1990), Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313262136 
  • Willett, Edward C. ;Ayatollah Khomeini, 2004, Publisher:The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 0823944654
  • Bakhash, Shaul (1984). The Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books. 
  • Harney, Desmond (1998). The priest and the king : an eyewitness account of the Iranian revolution. I.B. Tauris. 
  • Khomeini, Ruhollah (1981). Algar, Hamid (translator and editor). ed. Islam and Revolution : Writing and Declarations of Imam Khomeini. Berkeley: Mizan Press. 
  • Khomeini, Ruhollah (1980). Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini : political, philosophical, social, and religious. Bantam. 
  • Mackey, Sandra (1996). The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. Dutton. ISBN 0525940057. 
  • Molavi, Afshin (2005). The Soul of Iran: a Nation's Journey to Freedom. New York: Norton paperbacks. 
  • Schirazi, Asghar (1997). The Constitution of Iran. New York: Tauris. 
  • Taheri, Amir (1985). The Spirit of Allah. Adler & Adler. 
  • Wright, Robin (1989). In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade. New York: Simon & Schuster. 
  • Wright, Robin (2000). The Last Revolution. New York: Knopf. 
  • [; The Narrative of Awakening, 'Ansari, Hamid ', 'PUBLISHED BY:


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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
as Shah of Iran
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Succeeded by
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