Sri Lanka

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Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය
இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு
Flag of Sri Lanka Coat of arms of Sri Lanka
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"Sri Lanka Matha"
Sri Lanka Matha.ogg‎ Music , Sri Lanka Matha in Sinhala.ogg‎ Singing
Location of Sri Lanka
Capital Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte[1][2]
6°54′N 79°54′E / 6.9°N 79.9°E / 6.9; 79.9
Largest city Colombo
Official languages Sinhala, Tamil
Demonym Sri Lankan
Government Democratic Socialist Republic
 -  President Mahinda Rajapaksa
 -  Prime Minister Ratnasiri Wickremanayake
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Declared February 4, 1948 
 -  Republic May 22, 1972 
 -  Total 65,610 km2 (122nd)
25,332 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.4
 -  2005 estimate 19,668,000[3] (52nd)
 -  July 2008 census 21,128,773 
 -  Density 319/km2 (35th)
818/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $84.992 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $4,264[4] 
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $32.347 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $1,623[4] 
Gini (1999–00) 33.2 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.743 (medium) (99th)
Currency Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)
Time zone (UTC+5:30)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .lk
Calling code 94

Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (pronounced /ˌʃriːˈlɑːŋkə/, Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Tamil: இலங்கை; known as Ceylon (/sɪˈlɒn/) before 1972 and as Taprobane (/təˈprɒbəni/) in ancient times) is an island country in South Asia, located about 31 kilometres (19.3 mi) off the southern coast of India. It is home to around twenty million people.

Because of its location in the path of major sea routes, Sri Lanka is a strategic naval link between West Asia and South East Asia, and has been a center of Buddhist religion and culture from ancient times. Today, the country is a multi-religious and multi-ethnic nation, with more than a quarter of the population following faiths other than Buddhism, notably Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. The Sinhalese community forms the majority of the population, with Tamils, who are concentrated in the north and east of the island, forming the largest ethnic minority. Other communities include Moors, Burghers, Kaffirs and the Malays.

Famous for the production and export of tea, coffee, coconuts and rubber, Sri Lanka boasts a progressive and modern industrial economy and the highest per capita income in South Asia. The natural beauty of Sri Lanka's tropical forests, beaches and landscape, as well as its rich cultural heritage, make it a world famous tourist destination.

After over two thousand years of rule by local kingdoms, parts of Sri Lanka were colonized by Portugal and the Netherlands beginning in the 16th century, before the control of the entire country was ceded to the British Empire in 1815. During World War II, Sri Lanka served as an important base for Allied forces in the fight against the Japanese Empire.[5] A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century with the aim of obtaining political independence, which was eventually granted by the British after peaceful negotiations in 1948.



In ancient times, Sri Lanka was known by a variety of names: ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobane[6] and Arabs referred to it as Serendib (the origin of the word "serendipity").[7] Ceilão was the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese when they arrived on the island in 1505,[8] which was transliterated into English as Ceylon.[9] In 1972, the official name of the country was changed to "Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka" (in Sinhala ශ්‍රී ලංකාව śrī laṃkā, IPA[ˌʃɾiːˈlaŋkaː]; whereas the island itself is referred to as ලංකාව laṃkāva, IPA[laŋˈkaːʋə], in Tamil இலங்கை ilaṅkai, iˈlaŋgai). In 1978 it was changed to "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka".[10]

The current name is derived from the Sanskrit word lanka, meaning "island",[11] which was also the name of the island as described in the ancient Indian epics Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The word "Sri" is a Sanskrit title meaning sacred.

Geography and climate

Main cities in Sri Lanka.

The island of Sri Lanka lies in the Indian Ocean, to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. It is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait.[12] According to Hindu mythology, a land bridge to the Indian mainland, known as Rama's Bridge, was constructed during the time of Rama by the vanara architect Nala. Often referred to as Adam's Bridge, it now amounts to only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level.[12] According to colonial British reports, this is a natural causeway which was formerly complete, but was breached by a violent storm in 1480.[13] The width of the Palk Strait is small enough for the coast of Sri Lanka to be visible from the furthest point near the Indian town of Rameswaram.[citation needed] The teardrop-shaped island consists mostly of flat-to-rolling coastal plains, with mountains rising only in the south-central part. Amongst these are Adam's Peak (Sri Pada) and the highest point Pidurutalagala, at 2,524 meters (8,281 ft). The Mahaweli River and other major rivers provide fresh water to the population.[14]

Topographical map of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka's climate can be described as tropical, and quite hot. Its position between 5 and 10 north latitude endows the country with a warm climate, moderated by ocean winds and considerable moisture.[15]

Beach in Tangalle.

The mean temperature ranges from a low of 16 °C (61 °F) in Nuwara Eliya in the Central Highlands (where frost may occur for several days in the winter) to a high of 32 °C (90 °F) in Trincomalee on the northeast coast (where temperatures may reach 38 °C (100 °F)). The average yearly temperature for the country as a whole ranges from 28° to 30 °C (82–86 °F). Day and night temperatures may vary by 4 to 7 °C (7–13 °F). In January, the coolest month, many people wear coats and sweaters in the highlands and elsewhere. May, the hottest period, precedes the summer monsoon rains. The rainfall pattern is influenced by the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, which encounter the slopes of the Central Highlands, they unload heavy rains on the mountain slopes and the southwestern sector of the island. Some of the windward slopes receive up to 2,500 millimetres (98 in) of rain per month, but the leeward slopes in the east and northeast receive little rain. Periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island. Between December to March, monsoon winds come from the northeast, bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. Humidity is typically higher in the southwest and mountainous areas and depends on the seasonal patterns of rainfall. At Colombo, for example, daytime humidity stays above 70% all year, rising to almost 90 percent during the monsoon season in June. Anuradhapura experiences a daytime low of 60% during the monsoon month of March, but a high of 79% during the November and December rains. In the highlands, Kandy's daytime humidity usually ranges between 70 and 79%.

Flora and fauna

Mountain forests in Sri Lanka.

The mountains and the southwestern part of the country, known as the "wet zone," receive ample rainfall (an annual average of 2500 millimetres). Most of the southeast, east, and northern parts of the country comprise the "dry zone," which receives between 1200 and 1900 mm (47–75 in) of rain annually. Much of the rain in these areas falls from October to January; during the rest of the year there is very little precipitation, and all living creatures must conserve precious moisture. The arid northwest and southeast coasts receive the least amount of rain — 600 to 1200 mm (24–47 in) per year — However, though many say that there are no really dry areas in Sri Lanka, there are many pockets of very dry and abandoned areas where there is little to no rainwater. Varieties of flowering acacias are well adapted to the arid conditions and flourish on the Jaffna Peninsula. Among the trees of the dry-land forests are some valuable species, such as satinwood, ebony, ironwood, and mahogany and teak. In the wet zone, the dominant vegetation of the lowlands is a tropical evergreen forest, with tall trees, broad foliage, and a dense undergrowth of vines and creepers.

Subtropical evergreen forests resembling those of temperate climates flourish in the higher altitudes. Forests at one time covered nearly the entire island, but by the late 20th century lands classified as forests and forest reserves covered around one-third of the land.[16] The Ruhunu National Park in the southeast protects herds of elephant, deer, and peacocks, and the Wilpattu National Park in the northwest preserves the habitats of many water birds, such as storks, pelicans, ibis, and spoonbills. During the Mahaweli Ganga Program of the 1970s and 1980s in northern Sri Lanka, the government set aside four areas of land totaling 1,900 km2 (730 sq mi) as national parks. The island has three biosphere reserves, Hurulu, Sinharaja, and the Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya.

The national flower of Sri Lanka is Nil Mahanel (Nymphaeaceae),[17] the national tree is Na (Mesua nagassarium)[18] and the national bird is the Sri Lanka Junglefowl, which is endemic to the country.[19]


Sigiriya Rock Fortress.
History of Sri Lanka
Coat of Arms of Sri Lanka
This article is part of a series
Dipavamsa  · Mahavamsa
500 - 250 BC
250 BC - 1000
1000 - 1505
1505 – 1658
1656 – 1796
1796 – 1948
1948 - 1972
1972 - present
Education  · Economic
Sri Lankan military history
Army  · Air Force  · Navy
Civil war

Sri Lanka Portal
 v • d • e 

Early periods

Paleolithic human settlements have been discovered at excavations in several cave sites in the Western Plains region and the South-western face of the Central Hills region. Anthropologists believe that some discovered burial rites and certain decorative artifacts exhibit similarities between the first inhabitants of the island and the early inhabitants of Southern India. Recent bioanthropological studies have however dismissed these links, and have placed the origin of the people to the northern parts of India. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which described the emperor Ravana as monarch of the powerful kingdom of Lanka, which was created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the treasurer of the Gods.[20] English historian James Emerson Tennent also theorized Galle, a southern city in Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory, peacocks and other valuables. The main written accounts of the country's history are the Buddhist chronicles of Mahavansa and Dipavamsa.

The earliest-known inhabitants of the island now known as Sri Lanka were probably the ancestors of the Wanniyala-Aetto people, also known as Veddahs and numbering roughly 3,000. Linguistic analysis has found a correlation of the Sinhalese language with the languages of the Sindh and Gujarat, although most historians believe that the Sinhala community emerged well after the assimilation of various ethnic groups. From the ancient period date some remarkable archaeological sites including the ruins of Sigiriya, the so-called "Fortress in the Sky", and huge public works. Among the latter are large "tanks" or reservoirs, important for conserving water in a climate that alternates rainy seasons with dry times, and elaborate aqueducts, some with a slope as finely calibrated as one inch to the mile. Ancient Sri Lanka was also the first in the world to have established a dedicated hospital in Mihintale in the 4th century BCE. Ancient Sri Lanka was also the world's leading exporter of cinnamon, which was exported to Egypt as early as 1400 BCE. Sri Lanka was also the first Asian nation to have a female ruler in Queen Anula (47–42 BC)

Ancient Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan coin, 1st century CE.
Sanghamitta arriving in Sri Lanka with the Holy Bodhi Tree.

Since ancient times Sri Lanka was ruled by monarchs, most notably of the Sinha royal dynasty that lasted over 2000 years. The island was also infrequently invaded by South Indian kingdoms and parts of the island were ruled intermittently by the Chola dynasty, the Pandya dynasty, the Chera dynasty and the Pallava dynasty. The island was also invaded by the kingdoms of Kalinga (modern Orissa) and those from the Malay Peninsula. Buddhism arrived from India in the 3rd century BCE, brought by Bhikkhu Mahinda, who is believed to have been the son of Mauryan emperor Ashoka. Mahinda's mission won over the Sinhalese monarch Devanampiyatissa of Mihintale, who embraced the faith and propagated it throughout the Sinhalese population. The Buddhist kingdoms of Sri Lanka would maintain a large number of Buddhist schools and monasteries, and support the propagation of Buddhism into Southeast Asia.

Colonial era

Sri Lanka had always been an important port and trading post in the ancient world, and was increasingly frequented by merchant ships from the Middle East, Persia, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia. The islands were known to the first European explorers of South Asia and settled by many groups of Arab and Malay merchants. A Portuguese colonial mission arrived on the island in 1505 headed by Lourenço de Almeida the son of Francisco de Almeida. At that point the island consisted of three kingdoms, namely Kandy in the central hills, Kotte at the Western coast, and Yarlpanam (Anglicised Jaffna) in the north. The Dutch arrived in the 17th century. Although much of the island came under the domain of European powers, the interior, hilly region of the island remained independent, with its capital in Kandy. The British East India Company established control of the island in 1796, declaring it a crown colony in 1802, although the island would not be officially connected with British India. The fall of the kingdom of Kandy in 1815 unified the island under British rule.

20th Century and the World Wars

European colonists established a series of tea, cinnamon, rubber, sugar, coffee and indigo plantations. The British also brought a large number of indentured workers from Tamil Nadu to work in the plantation economy. The city of Colombo was established as the administrative centre, and the British established modern schools, colleges, roads and churches that brought Western-style education and culture to the native people. Increasing grievances over the denial of civil rights, mistreatment and abuse of natives by colonial authorities gave rise to a struggle for independence in the 1930s, when the Youth Leagues opposed the "Ministers' Memorandum," which asked the colonial authority to increase the powers of the board of ministers without granting popular representation or civil freedoms. Buddhist scholars and the Teetotalist Movement also played a vital role in this time. During World War II, the island served as an important Allied military base. A large segment of the British and American fleet were deployed on the island, as were tens of thousands of soldiers committed to the war against Japan in Southeast Asia.

Sri Lankan independence and independence movement

The formal ceremony marking the start of self rule, with the opening of the first parliament at Independence Square

Following the war, popular pressure for independence intensified. The office of Prime Minister of Ceylon was created in advance of independence on 14 October 1947, Don Stephen Senanayake being the first prime minister. On February 4, 1948 the country won its independence as the Commonwealth of Ceylon. On July 21, 1960 Sirimavo Bandaranaike took office as prime minister, and became the world's first female prime minister and the first female head of government in post-colonial Asia. In 1972, during Sirimavo Bandaranaike's second term as prime minister, the country became a republic within the Commonwealth, and the name was changed to Sri Lanka. The island enjoyed good relations with the United Kingdom and had the British Royal Navy stationed at Trincomalee.

Civil War

Since 1983, there has been on-and-off civil war, predominantly between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), a separatist militant organization who fight to create an independent state named Tamil Eelam in the North and East of the island.

Government and politics

The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

The Constitution of Sri Lanka establishes a democratic, socialist republic in Sri Lanka, which is also a unitary state. The government is a mixture of the presidential system and the parliamentary system. The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state, the commander in chief of the armed forces, as well as head of government, and is popularly elected for a six-year term. In the exercise of duties, the President is responsible to the Parliament of Sri Lanka, which is a unicameral 225-member legislature. The President appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers composed of elected members of parliament. The President's deputy is the Prime Minister, who leads the ruling party in parliament and shares many executive responsibilities, mainly in domestic affairs.[21]

Members of parliament are elected by universal (adult) suffrage based on a modified proportional representation system by district to a six-year term. The primary modification is that, the party that receives the largest number of valid votes in each constituency gains a unique "bonus seat." The president may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve Parliament any time after it has served for one year. The parliament reserves the power to make all laws. On July 1, 1960 the people of Sri Lanka elected the first-ever female head of government in Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike. Her daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga served multiple terms as prime minister and as president from 1999 to 2005. The current president and prime minister, both of whom took office on November 21, 2005, are Mahinda Rajapaksa and Ratnasiri Wickremanayake respectively.

Sri Lanka has enjoyed democracy with universal suffrage since 1931. Politics in Sri Lanka are controlled by rival coalitions led by the left-wing Sri Lanka Freedom Party, headed by President Rajapaksa, the comparatively right-wing United National Party led by former prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and Marxist-Nationalist JVP. There are also many smaller Buddhist, socialist and Tamil nationalist political parties that oppose the separatism of the LTTE but demand regional autonomy and increased civil rights. Since 1948, Sri Lanka has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations. It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Colombo Plan, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Through the Cold War-era, Sri Lanka followed a foreign policy of non-alignment but has remained closer to the United States and Western Europe. The military of Sri Lanka comprises the Sri Lankan Army, the Sri Lankan Navy and the Sri Lankan Air Force. These are administered by the Ministry of Defence. Since the 1980s, the army has led the government response against the Marxist militants of the JVP and now the LTTE militant forces. Sri Lanka receives considerable military assistance from Pakistan and China.[22]

Sri Lanka was considered one of the "world's most politically unstable countries" by the World Bank and Asian Development Bank in 2004.[23] The Economist labels Sri Lanka a "flawed democracy" in its 2006 rankings (ranking 57 and positioned among 54 other flawed ranked ones)[24] and Foreign Policy ranks Sri Lanka 25th (Alert Category) in its Failed States Index[25] for 2007. However, Sri Lanka, according to the US State Department in 2005, was classified a "stable democracy" amidst a ceasefire period of the long running civil war.[26]

Foreign relations and military

Foreign relations

Sri Lanka traditionally follows a nonaligned foreign policy but has been seeking closer relations with the United States since December 1977. It participates in multilateral diplomacy, particularly at the United Nations, where it seeks to promote sovereignty, independence, and development in the developing world. Sri Lanka was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It also is a member of the Commonwealth, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, and the Colombo Plan. Sri Lanka continues its active participation in the NAM, while also stressing the importance it places on regionalism by playing a strong role in SAARC.


The Sri Lanka Armed Forces consists of the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy, the Sri Lanka Air Force which comes under preview of the Ministry of Defence (MoD). The total strength of the three services numbers around 230,000 active personal who have voluntary joined, since military draft have never been imposed in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lanka Armed Forces are currently in a fully mobilized (including reserves) state due to the ongoing Sri Lankan Civil War against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers) which is proscribed as a terrorist organization by 32 countries (see list). In support of the armed forces there are two paramilitary units functioning under preview of the Ministry of Defence, which are the Special Task Force and the Civil Defence Force. Sri Lanka does not have a Coast Guard, Navy carries out such duties. However, discussions are underway with respect to establishing a coast guard service.

Since independence from Britain in 1948, the primary focus of the armed forces has been on internal security, due to three major insurgencies, most notably engaging in the 30 year long war with the LTTE. The LTTE is proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries (see list).

Peace keeping

Even though its armed forces are engaged in an internal conflict, Sri Lanka contributes with forces in international missions organised by the United Nations (UN) notably in:


The World Trade Centre in Colombo.
Sri Lanka's well-known export, Ceylon tea (black)

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Sri Lanka became a plantation economy, famous for its production and export of cinnamon, rubber and Ceylon tea, which remains a trademark national export. The development of modern ports under British rule raised the strategic importance of the island as a centre of trade. During World War II, the island hosted important military installations and Allied forces. However, the plantation economy aggravated poverty and economic inequality. From 1948 to 1977 socialism strongly influenced the government's economic policies. Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised and a welfare state established. While the standard of living and literacy improved significantly, the nation's economy suffered from inefficiency, slow growth and lack of foreign investment.

From 1977 the UNP government began incorporating privatisation, deregulation and promotion of private enterprise. While the production and export of tea, rubber, coffee, sugar and other agricultural commodities remains important, the nation has moved steadily towards an industrialised economy with the development of food processing, textiles, telecommunications and finance. By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of export, and further declined to 16.8% in 2005 (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments have reached 63%. The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with average growth of 5.3%. The year of 2001 saw the first recession in the country's history, as a result of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife. Signs of recovery appeared after the 2002 ceasefire. The Colombo Stock Exchange reported the highest growth in the world for 2003, and today Sri Lanka has the highest per capita income in South Asia.

In April 2004, there was a sharp reversal in economic policy after the government headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe of the United National Party was defeated by a coalition made up of Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the leftist-nationalist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna called the United People's Freedom Alliance. The new government stopped the privatization of state enterprises and reforms of state utilities such as power and petroleum, and embarked on a subsidy program called the Rata Perata economic program. Its main theme to support the rural and suburban SMEs and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as oil prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Sri Lanka, with an income per head of $1,400 still lags behind some of its neighbors including Maldives and Mauritius but is ahead of its giant neighbor India. Its economy grew by an average of 5% during the 1990s during the 'War for Peace' era. According to the Sri Lankan central bank statistics, the economy was estimated to have grown by 7% last year, although inflation had reached 20%. It should be noted that Sri Lanka's central bank statistics have been called into question over allegations of political interference and institutional decay.[27] Parts of Sri Lanka, particularly the South and East coast, were devastated by the 2004 Asian Tsunami. The economy was briefly buoyed by an influx of foreign aid and tourists, but this was disrupted with the reemergence of the civil war resulting in increased lawlessness in the country[28] and a sharp decline in tourism[29] [1].

Administrative divisions


The Provinces of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: පළාත) have existed since the 19th century but they didn't have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralization of the Government of Sri Lanka[30]. Between 1988 and 2006 the Norhtern and Eastern provinces were temporarily merged to form the North-East Province. Prior to 1987, all administration was handled by a district-based civil service which had been in place since colonial times.

Sri Lanka is divided into 9 provinces[31] and 25 districts.[32] Each province is administered by a directly-elected provincial council:

province Capital Area (km²) Population
Central Kandy 5,674 2,423,966
Eastern Trincomalee 9,996 1,460,939
North Central Anuradhapura 10,714 1,104,664
Northern Jaffna 8,884 1,311,776
North Western Kurunegala 7,812 2,169,892
Sabaragamuwa Ratnapura 4,902 1,801,331
Southern Galle 5,559 2,278,271
Uva Badulla 8,488 1,177,358
Western Colombo 3,709 5,361,200


The provinces of Sri Lanka are divided into 25 districtss (Sinhala: දිස්ත්‍රි‌ක්‌ක sing. දිස්ත්‍රික්කය). Each district is administered under a District Secretariat. The districts are further subdivided into divisional secretariats, and these in turn to Grama Sevaka divisions.

The Districts are known in Sinhala as Disa. Originally a Disa (usually rendered into English as Dissavony) was a duchy, notably Matale and Uva. The Government Agent, who administers a district.

These were originally based on the feudal counties, the korales and ratas. They were formerly known as 'D.R.O. Divisions' after the 'Divisional Revenue Officer'. Later the D.R.O.s became 'Assistant Government Agents' and the Divisions were known as 'A.G.A. Divisions'. Currently, the Divisions are administered by a 'Divisional Secretary', and are known as a 'D.S. Divisions'. Rural D.S. Divisions are also administered by a 'Pradeshiya Sabha' (Sinhala for 'Regional Council'), which is elected.


Cities by population
Rank City Province Population Rank City Province Population

Colombo, Western Province
Kandy, Central Province

1 Colombo Western Province 682 046 11 Galle Southern Province 97 209
2 Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia Western Province 232 220 12 Batticaloa Eastern Province 95 489
3 Moratuwa Western Province 202 021 13 Katunayake Western Province 90 231
4 Negambo Western Province 142 451 14 Battaramulla Western Province 84 200
5 Trincomalee Eastern Province 131 954 15 Dambulla Central Province 75 290
6 Kotte Western Province 125 914 16 Dalugama Western Province 74 129
7 Kandy Central Province 119 186 17 Maharagama Western Province 74 117
8 Kalmunai Eastern Province 103 879 18 Kotikawatta Western Province 71 879
9 Vavuniya Northern Province 101 143 19 Chavakachcheri Northern Province 70 273
10 Jaffna Northern Province 98 193 20 Anuradhapura North Central Province 66 951
2009 estimation[33]


Population growth in Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka is the 53rd most populated nation in the world, with an annual population growth rate of 0.79%. Sri Lanka has a birth rate of 15.63 births per 1,000 people and a death rate of 6.49 deaths per 1,000 people. Population density is the greatest in western Sri Lanka, especially in and around Colombo. There is a small population on the island of the Vedda people. These are believed to be the oldest and indigenous ethnic group to inhabit the island. The Sinhalese people form the largest ethnic group in the nation, composing approximately 81.9% of the total population. Tamils are concentrated in the North, East, Central and Western provinces of the country. Tamils who were brought as indentured labourers from India by British colonists to work on estate plantations, nearly 50% of whom were repatriated following independence in 1948,[34][page needed] are called "Indian Origin" Tamils. They are distinguished from the native Tamil population that has resided in Sri Lanka since ancient times. According to 2001 census data Indian Tamils makeup 5.1% of the Sri Lankan population and, Sri Lankan Tamils 4.3%. Though this figure only accounted for Sri Lankan Tamils in government-controlled areas, not accounting for those in rebel-held territories. There is a significant population (8.0%) of Moors, who trace their lineage to Arab traders and immigrants from the Middle East. Their presence is concentrated in the cities and the central and eastern provinces. There are also small ethnic groups such as the Burghers (of mixed European descent) and Malays from Southeast Asia.


Sinhalese and Tamil are the two official languages of Sri Lanka. English is spoken by approximately 10% of the population, and is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes. Members of the Burgher community speak variant forms of Portuguese Creole and Dutch with varying proficiency, while members of the Malay community speak a form of creole Malay that is unique to the island.


Buddhism is followed by about 70% of the population
The Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna is an important place for Hindus in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a multi ethnic and multi religious population. Buddhism constitutes the religious faith of about 70% of the population of the island,[35][36] most of whom follow the Theravada school of Buddhism.[37] According to traditional Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka in the 2nd century BCE by Venerable Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka, during the reign of Sri Lanka's King Devanampiyatissa.[37] During this time, a sapling of the Bodhi Tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment was brought to Sri Lanka and the first monasteries were established under the sponsorship of the Sri Lankan king. The Pali Canon (Thripitakaya), having previously been preserved as an oral tradition, was first committed to writing in Sri Lanka around 30 BC.[38]

Sri Lanka has the longest continuous history of Buddhism of any predominately Buddhist nation,[37] with the Sangha having existed in a largely unbroken lineage since its introduction in the 2nd century BCE. During periods of decline, the Sri Lankan monastic lineage was revived through contact with Thailand and Burma.[38] Periods of Mahayana influence, as well as official neglect under colonial rule, created great challenges for Theravada Buddhist institutions in Sri Lanka, but repeated revivals and resurgences — most recently in the 19th century — have kept the Theravada tradition alive for over 2000 years.

The Jami Ul Alfar mosque in Colombo. Islam was brought to Sri Lanka by Arab Merchants
Sri Lanka religiosity
religion percent

The second largest religion is Hinduism. Hinduism was primarily established in Sri Lanka by migrants and often invaders from southern India,[39] and Hindus now constitute seven to fifteen percent of the population,[36][40] mostly of the Shaivite school.[citation needed] Followers of Islam comprise approximately eight percent of the population,[36] having been brought to the island by Arab traders over the course of many centuries[41] European colonists introduced Christianity to the country in the 16th century,[42] and the religion has been adopted by around six percent of the population.[36] There also was a small population of Zoroastrian immigrants from India (Parsis) who settled in Ceylon during the period of British rule. As a result of emigration, few remain, yet they have played a significant role in the growth of the country. The former finance minister of Sri Lanka, Nariman Choksy, was a Parsi. Other famous Parsi families in Sri Lanka include the Captain family and the Pestongee family.

Religion plays an important part in the life and culture of Sri Lankans. The Buddhist majority observe Poya Days, once per month according to the Lunar calendar. The Hindus and Muslims also observe their own holidays. There are many Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka and many mosques, Hindu temples and churches across the island, especially in areas where respective communities are concentrated. Buddhists are distributed across most parts of the island except in the north. Hindus are concentrated in north, east, and central high lands. Christians, particularly Roman Catholics are mainly concentrated along the western coastal belt. Muslims are concentrated in several pockets along the coast and in interior. All religious communities are represented in western province and in other urban centers in sizable numbers.


University of Colombo
University of Peradeniya

With a literacy rate of 92%, and 83% of the total population having had Secondary Education,[43] Sri Lanka has one of the most literate populations amongst developing nations.[44] An education system which dictates 9 years of Compulsory Schooling for every child is in place, with 99% of the children entering the first grade.[43] A free education system initiated in 1945[45] by Dr. C. W. W. Kannangara, a former minister of education, has greatly contributed to this. Mr. Kannangara led the establishment of the Madhya Maha Vidyalayas (Central Schools) in different parts of the country in order to provide education to Sri Lanka's rural population. In 1942 a special education committee proposed extensive reforms to establish an efficient and quality education system for the people. However in the 1980s changers to this system saw the separation the of administration of schools between the central government and the provincial government. Thus the elite National Schools are controlled directly by the Ministry of Education and the provincial schools by the provincial government

Most schools in Sri Lanka provide education from grades 1 to 13 in the same institution. Students sit for the GCE Ordinary Level Examination (O/Levels) in grade 11 and the GCE Advanced Level Examination (A/levels) in grade 13, conducted by the Department of Examinations. These schools are modeled on British colleges. A majority of them are public, but a number of private schools do exist. While most reputed National and Private Schools centered around large cities are usually single-sex institutions, rural provincial schools tend to be coeducational. In recent decades, a large number of international schools have been established across the nation. In these schools General Certificate of Secondary Education, International Baccalaureate and Cambridge International Examinations are popular education programs.

Sri Lanka has around 16 public universities. They include the University of Colombo, the University of Peradeniya, the University of Kelaniya, the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, the University of Moratuwa, the University of Peradeniya, the University of Jaffna, the University of Ruhuna, the Eastern University of Sri Lanka, the Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka and the Wayamba University of Sri Lanka. However the lack of space in these institutions and the unwillingness to establish private universities has led to a large number of students been denied entry into formal universities as well as high undergraduate unemployment. As a result, a number of public and private institutions have emerged, which provide specialised education in a variety of fields, such as computer science, business administration and law. These include the government owned Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology and the Institute of Technological Studies.


Colombo-Galle Face Green

Most Sri Lankan cities and towns are connected by the Sri Lanka Railways, the state-run national railway operator. The first railway line was inaugurated on April 26, 1867, linking Colombo with Kandy. The total length of Sri Lankan roads exceeds 11,000 kilometres (6,840 mi), with a vast majority of them being paved. The government has launched several highway projects to bolster the economy and national transport system, including the Colombo-Katunayake Expressway, the Colombo-Kandy (Kadugannawa) Expressway, the Colombo-Padeniya Expressway and the Outer Circular Highway to ease Colombo's traffic congestion. There are also plans to build a major bridge connecting Jaffna to the Indian city of Chennai.

The Ceylon Transport Board is the state-run agency responsible for operating public bus services across the island. Sri Lanka also maintains 430 kilometres (270 mi) of inland waterways. It has three deep-water ports at Colombo, Trincomalee and Galle. There is also a smaller, shallower harbour at Kankesanturai, north of Jaffna. There are twelve paved airports and two unpaved airstrips in the country. SriLankan Airlines is the official national carrier, partly owned and operated by Emirates Airline. It was voted the best airline in South Asia by Skytrax. SriLankan Air Taxi is the smaller, domestic arm of the national carrier, while Expo Aviation and Lankair are private airline companies. The Bandaranaike International Airport is the country's only international airport, located in Katunayaka, 22 kilometres (14 mi) north of Colombo.

Human rights

The human Rights situation in Sri Lanka has come under criticism by human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch,[46] as well as the United States Department of State[47] and the European Union,[48] have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Sri Lanka. Both the government of Sri Lanka and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) are accused of violating human rights. In its 2007 report, however, they stated that "escalating political killings, child recruitment, abductions and armed clashes created a climate of fear in the east, spreading to the north by the end of the year", whilst also outlining concerns with violence against women, the death penalty and "numerous reports of torture in police custody". However, the report also stated that the ceasefire between government and LTTE remained in place despite numerous violations.[49] However, the Sri Lankan minister for HR said "We regret one or two statements made here, that fly in the face of all concrete evidence, that the situation in Sri Lanka is deteriorating, when we have dealt more firmly with terrorism, with far-less damage to civilians, than in any comparative situation."[50]Foreign Minister Rohitha Bogollagama said, the report presents a distorted view of the actual situation in Sri Lanka during the year 2007 and is a litany of unsubstantiated allegations, innuendo and vituperative exaggerations.[51]

Sri Lanka's government is labeled as one of the "world's worst perpetrators of enforced disappearances", according to a study by US-based pressure group 'Human Rights Watch' (HRW). An HRW report accuses security forces and pro-government militias of abducting and "disappearing" hundreds of people - mostly Tamils - since 2006. Sri Lanka's government says HRW has exaggerated the scale of the problem. The report said, "The number of disappearances carried out by the Tamil Tigers in government-controlled areas was relatively low. But, the Tigers were responsible for targeted killings, forced child recruitment, bomb attacks on civilians and the repression of basic rights in areas they controlled."[52]

Culture and arts

The Buddha statue at Mihintale.
kavadi by Hindu Devotess at Vavuniya

The island is the home of two main traditional cultures: the Sinhalese (centered in the ancient cities of Kandy and Anuradhapura) and the Tamil (centered in the city of Jaffna). In more recent times a British colonial culture was added, and lately Sri Lanka, particularly in the urban areas, has experienced a dramatic makeover in the western mold. Until recently, for example, most Sri Lankans, certainly those in the villages, have eaten traditional food, engaged in traditional crafts and expressed themselves through traditional arts. But economic growth and intense economic competition in developed countries has spilled over to most of Sri Lanka, producing changes that might variously be identified as progress, westernisation or a loss of identity and assimilation.

Traditional food

Hoppers, a Sri Lankan delicacy.

Sri Lankans have added western influences to the customary diet such as rice and curry, pittu (mixture of fresh rice meal, very lightly roasted and mixed with fresh grated coconut, then steamed in a bamboo mould). Kiribath (cooked in thick coconut cream for this unsweetened rice-pudding which is accompanied by a sharp chili relish called "lunumiris"), wattalapam (rich pudding of Malay origin made of coconut milk, jaggery, cashew nuts, eggs, and various spices including cinnamon cloves and nutmeg), kottu, and hoppers ("appa"), batter cooked rapidly in a hot curved pan, accompanied by eggs, milk or savouries. Middle Eastern influences and practices are found in traditional Moor dishes. While Dutch and Portuguese influences are found with the island's Burgher community preserving their culture through traditional favourites such as Lamprais (rice cooked in stock and baked in a banana leaf), Breudher (Dutch Christmas cake) and Bolo Fiado (Portuguese-style layer cake).


Elephants at the Esala Perahera.

Every year on or about April 13th Sinhala and Tamil people celebrate Sinhala and Tamil New Year Festival, and Muslims celebrate Ramadan. Esala Perahera (A-suh-luh peh-ruh-ha-ruh) is the grand festival of Esala held in Sri Lanka. It is very grand with elegant costumes. Happening in July or August in Kandy, it has become a unique symbol of Sri Lanka. It is a Buddhist festival consisting of dances and richly-decorated elephants. There are fire-dances, whip-dances, Kandian dances and various other cultural dances. The elephants are usually adorned with lavish garments. The festival ends with the traditional 'diya-kepeema'. The elephant is paraded around the city bearing the tooth of Buddha. However the new year for tamils have been established as being on January 14th from this year.


Sri Lankan cinema in past years has featured subjects such as family relationships, love stories and the years of conflict between the military and Tamil Tiger rebels. Many films are in the Sinhalese language and the Sri Lankan cinematic style is similar to Indian cinema.

The first film to be produced and shown in Sri Lanka was Kadawunu Poronduwa (The Broken Promise) which was released in 1947. The first colour film of Sri Lanka was Ranmuthu Duwa.

Afterwards there were many Sinhalese movies produced in Sri Lanka and some of them, such as Nidhanaya, received several international film awards. The most influential filmmaker in the history of Sri Lankan cinema is Lester James Peiris who has directed many movies of excellent quality which led to global acclaim. His latest film, Wekande Walauwa ("Mansion by the Lake") became the first movie to be submitted from Sri Lanka for the Best Foreign Language film award at the Academy Awards. In 2005 the director Vimukthi Jayasundara became the first Sri Lankan to win the prestigious Camera d’Or award for Best First Film, or any award for that matter, at the Cannes Film Festival for his Sinhalese language film Sulanga Enu Pinisa (The Forsaken Land). Controversial filmmaker Asoka Handagama's films are considered by many in the Sri Lankan film world to be the best films of honest response to the ethnic conflict currently raging in the country. Prasanna Vithanage is one of Sri Lanka's most notable filmmakers. His films have won many awards, both local and international. Recent releases like 'Sooriya Arana', 'Samanala thatu', and 'Hiripoda wessa' have attracted Sri Lankans to cinemas. Sri Lankan films are usually in the Sinhalese language. Tamil language movies are also filmed in Sri Lanka but they are not part of Kollywood which is Indian Tamil cinema. However some Kollywood films are based in Sri Lanka as well.


The earliest music came from the theater at a time when the traditional open-air drama (referred to in Sinhala as Kolam, Sokari and Nadagam). In 1903 the first music album, Nurthi, was released through Radio Ceylon. Also Vernon Corea introduced Sri Lankan music in the English Service of Radio Ceylon.

In the early 1960s, Indian music in films greatly influenced Sri Lankan music and later Sri Lankan stars like Sunil Shantha found greater popularity among Indian people. By 1963, Radio Ceylon had more Indian listeners than Sri Lankan ones. The notable songwriters Mahagama Sekara and Ananda Samarakoon made a Sri Lankan music revolution. At the peak of this revolution, musicians such as W. D. Amaradeva, H.R. Jothipala, Milton Mallawarachchi, M.S. Fernando, Annesley Malewana and Clarence Wijewardene did great work.

A very popular type of music is the so-called Baila, a kind of dance music that originated from Portuguese music introduced to the island in colonial times.


The national radio station, Radio Ceylon is the oldest-running radio station in Asia.[53][54] It was established in 1923 by Edward Harper just three years after broadcasting was launched in Europe.[55] It remains one of the most popular stations in Asia, with its programming reaching neighboring Asian nations. The station is managed by the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation and broadcasts services in Sinhalese, Tamil, English and Hindi. Since the 1980s, a large number of private radio stations have also being introduced, and they have gained commercial popularity and success. Broadcast television was introduced to the country in 1979 when the Independent Television Network was launched. Initially all Television stations were state controlled, but private television networks began broadcasts in 1992.[56] Global television networks from India, Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States are also widely popular, and cable and satellite television is gaining in popularity with Sri Lanka's middle-class. Popular publications include the English language Daily Mirror and The Sunday Observer and The Sunday Times, Divayina, Lankadeepa and Lakbima in Sinhalese and the Tamil publications Dinakaran and Uthayan.


A Test match between Sri Lanka and England at the SCC Ground, Colombo, March 2001.

While the national sport in Sri Lanka is volleyball,[57] by far the most popular sport in the country is cricket.[57] Rugby union also enjoys extensive popularity, as do aquatic sports, athletics, Football (soccer) and tennis. Sri Lanka's schools and colleges regularly organize sports and athletics teams, competing on provincial and national levels. The Sri Lankan cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the 1990s, rising from underdog status to winning the 1996 World Cup,[58] as well as the Asia Cup in 1996 and 2004. Sri Lanka remains one of the leading cricketing nations in the world, with the national team reaching the finals of Cricket World Cup 2007, where they lost to Australia.[59]

Sri Lanka has a large number of sports stadiums, including the Sinhalese Sports Club Ground, the R. Premadasa Stadium and the Rangiri Dambulla International Stadium in Dambulla as well as the Galle International Stadium. The country co-hosted the 1996 Cricket World Cup with India and Pakistan, and has hosted the Asia Cup tournament on numerous occasions. It will also co-host the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Aquatic sports such as boating, surfing, swimming and scuba diving on the coast, the beaches and backwaters attract a large number of Sri Lankans and foreign tourists.

See also


  1. ^ Official Website of Sri Lanka tourist Board - Facts at a glance
  2. ^ Sri Lanka: Parliament History
  3. ^ Department of Census and Statistics Estimated mid year population by sex and age, 2003 - 2005
  4. ^ a b c d "Sri Lanka". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. 
  5. ^ British Prime Minister Winston Churchill described the moment a Japanese fleet prepared to invade Sri Lanka as "the most dangerous and distressing moment of the entire conflict." - Commonwealth Air Training Program Museum, The Saviour of Ceylon
  6. ^ Abeydeera, Ananda. "In Search of Taprobane: the Western discovery and mapping of Ceylon". Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  7. ^ "Sri Lanka - The Pearl of the Orient". Metropolis. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  8. ^ Rajasingham, K T. "Sri Lanka: The untold story". Asia Times. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  9. ^ Zubair, Lareef. "Etymologies of Lanka, Serendib, Taprobane and Ceylon". Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  10. ^ "Chapter I - The People, The State And Sovereignty". THe Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  11. ^ de Silva, Colin (February 14, 1982). "Sri Lanka, The 'Resplendent Isle'". The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  12. ^ a b BBC News, Gods row minister offers to quit, September 15, 2007
  13. ^ Rediff, Ramar Sethu, a world heritage centre?, July 4, 2007
  14. ^ Paranavitana, Senarat; Nicholas, Cyril Wace (1961). A Concise History of Ceylon. Colombo: Ceylon University Press. pp. p.2–5. OCLC 465385. 
  15. ^ BBC Weather'\, Country Guide: Sri Lanka
  16. ^ EarthTrends, Environmental Information, Forests, Grasslands, and Drylands-- Sri Lanka
  17. ^ Government of Sri Lanka Official Web Portal, National Flower
  18. ^ Government of Sri Lanka Official Web Portal, National Tree
  19. ^ Government of Sri Lanka Official Web Portal, National Bird
  20. ^ Keshavadas, Sant (1988). Ramayana at a Glance. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120805453. 
  21. ^ The Constitution of Sri Lanka - CONTENTS
  22. ^ Bedi, Rahul (2007-06-02). "Sri Lanka turns to Pakistan, China for military needs". IANS ( Network). Retrieved on 2007-06-02. 
  23. ^ Trade Research - Unstable Politics Hurt Sri Lanka Investment-Lenders at
  24. ^
  25. ^ The Fund for Peace - Failed States Index Scores 2007 at
  26. ^
  27. ^ The Sunday Times Economic Analysis at
  28. ^ Lawlessness Grows in Strife-Torn Sri Lanka - at
  29. ^ Sri Lanka tourism plummets in May - LANKA BUSINESS ONLINE at
  30. ^ Provincial Councils from the Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka
  31. ^ Constitution of Sri Lanka, Eighth Schedule
  32. ^ Constitution of Sri Lanka, First Schedule
  33. ^ World Gazetteer online
  34. ^ Hoole, Rajan (2001). Sri Lanka: The Arrogance of Power. University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna). ISBN 978-9559447047. 
  35. ^ "Sri Lanka". International Religious Freedom Report 2007. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2007-09-14. Retrieved on 2008-03-30. 
  36. ^ a b c d "The World Factbook: Sri Lanka". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-08-12. 
  37. ^ a b c Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Buddhist Studies
  38. ^ a b Theravada Buddhism and Shan/Thai/Dai/Laos Regions, Maung Chan, 2005-03-28
  39. ^ Hinduism In Sri Lanka, Discover Sri Lanka
  40. ^ U.S. Department of States - International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Sri Lanka
  41. ^ Lankan Muslims' historical links with India, Indian Muslims, April 3, 2006
  42. ^ Young, R. F., & Sēnānāyaka, J. E. B. (1998), The carpenter-heretic: a collection of Buddhist stories about Christianity from 18th century Sri Lanka, Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons.
  43. ^ a b Figures as of 2004/2005. UNICEF, Sri Lanka: Statistics
  44. ^ Chandra Gunawardene, Problems of illiteracy in a literate developing society
  45. ^ De Silva, K.M. (1981). A Short History of Sri Lanka. Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 472. ISBN 0-520-04320-0. 
  46. ^ Amnesty International - Sri Lanka Human Rights Reports
  47. ^ Sri Lanka
  48. ^ The EU's relations with Sri Lanka - Overview
  49. ^ Amnesty International
  50. ^ :. NewsLine : Minister sets the record straight on Sri Lanka’s human rights situation .:
  51. ^ :. NewsLine : US Report: Distorted view to denigrate Sri Lanka
  52. ^ "S Lanka rapped over 'disappeared'". BBC News. 2008-03-06. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. 
  53. ^ ApacheCon, Sri Lanka
  54. ^ Central Queensland University, A Case Study of Sri Lankan Media
  55. ^ Info Lanka, Sri Lanka's National Media
  56. ^ Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
  57. ^ a b Sri Lanka development gateway, Sports
  58. ^ The Guardian, Sri Lanka light up the world
  59. ^ Cricinfo, Final: Australia v Sri Lanka at Bridgetown, Apr 28, 2007

Further reading

  • Brow, James: Vedda villages of Anuradhapura: The historical anthropology Of a community in Sri Lanka, University Of Washington Press, Seattle, 1978.
  • Codrington, H. W.: A Short History of Ceylon, New Delhi 1994 (Reprint. Asian Educational Services)
  • De Silva, Chandra Richard: Sri Lanka - A History, New Delhi 1987 (Second, revised edition 1997)
  • De Silva, K. M.: A History of Sri Lanka. New Delhi, Penguin, xvii, p. 782, 2005.
  • Devendra, T. and D. Gunasena: Sri Lanka: The Emerald Island, (New Delhi 1996), Roli Books.
  • Domroes, Manfred: After the Tsunami: Relief and rehabilitation in Sri Lanka, New Delhi, Mosaic Books, 1st ed. 2006.
  • Gunaratne, Shelton A.: The Taming of the Press in Sri Lanka. Journalism Monographs No. 39, May 1975.
  • Johnson, B. L. C., and M. Le M. Scrivenor.: Sri Lanka Land, People and Economy, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, London, 1981.
  • Knox, Robert: An Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon in the East Indies, New Delhi 2004 (Reprint. Asian Educational Services)
  • Mendis, G.C.: Ceylon Today and Yesterday, Colombo 1957 (Third edition 1995)
  • Sedere, Upali M.: Context of Educational Reforms Then and Now: 121st C. W. W. Kannangara *Memorial Address, Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla, October 13, 2005
  • Smith, Vincent A.: The Oxford History of India, Oxford 1958 (4th edition 1981)
  • Williams, Harry: Ceylon Pearl of the East, Robert Hale Limited, London, Great Britain, 1950.
  • Williams, H.: Ceylon : Pearl of the East Delhi, Surjeet, 2002
  • Philippe Gilbert: Les Larmes de Ceylan Ed. des Equateurs, France, 2005

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